Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Elizabeth McClintock

Shrub, tree, evergreen or deciduous, dioecious or nearly so
Leaves generally alternate, simple, often spiny, toothed, or lobed
Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally axillary
Flower generally unisexual, radial, small; sepals generally 4, generally fused at base; petals 4, fused at base or free, white or green; stamens generally 4, generally alternate petals; ovary superior, chambers often 4, generally 1-ovuled, style terminal, 0 or short, stigma head-like or lobed
Fruit: drupe, generally red (purple to black or yellow to whitish); stones often 4
Seeds often 4
Genera in family: 4 genera, 300–400 species: tropical, temp
Reference: [Brizicky 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:227–234]



Leaves entire, spiny, or toothed, petioled; upper surface generally shiny
Flower: sepals persistent in fruit; petals oblong or obovate, fused at base
Fruit round, pulpy; stones 4, walls hard
Seed 1 per stone
Species in genus: 300–400 species: especially tropical
Etymology: (Latin: name for Medit holly-oak, Quercus ilex L.)


I. aquifolium L.


Shrub, small tree, evergreen, generally dioecious
Stem erect; branches many; branchlets minute-hairy
Leaves 2.5–6 cm, ovate or oblong-ovate, entire to lobed (on 1 plant), often with widely spaced, stiff, spine-like teeth
Flower: petals dull white
Fruit ± 7–8 mm wide, generally red, smooth
Ecology: Cool, wooded areas
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: native to Europe, w Asia
Cult since ancient time for showy fruit.

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bioregional map for ILEX%20aquifolium being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Ilex aquifolium
Retrieve dichotomous key for Ilex
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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