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POLEMONIACEAE

PHLOX FAMILY

Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, vine
Leaves simple or compound, cauline (or most in basal rosette), alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cymes, heads, or flowers solitary
Flower: calyx generally 5-ribbed, ribs often connected by translucent membranes that are generally torn by growing fruit; corolla generally 5-lobed, radial or bilateral, salverform to bell-shaped, throat often well defined; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, attached at same or different levels, filaments of same or different lengths, pollen white, yellow, blue, or red; ovary superior, chambers generally 3, style 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: capsule
Seeds 1–many, gelatinous or not when wet
Genera in family: 19 genera, 320 species: Am, n Eur, n Asia; some cultivated (Cantua, Cobaea (cup-and-saucer vine), Collomia, Gilia, Ipomopsis, Linanthus, Phlox )
Recent taxonomic note: *See also revised taxonomy of Porter and Johnson 2000 Aliso 19(1):55–91; Porter 1998 Aliso 17:83–85
.

GILIA

Alva G. Day

Annual, perennial herb, generally erect
Stem glabrous, hairy, glandular, or cobwebby
Leaves simple, generally alternate; basal generally in rosette, toothed, pinnately lobed, or entire; cauline generally reduced; leaf tips, calyx lobes acute, acuminate, or needle-like
Inflorescence: flowers solitary or clustered, 1–many in axils of bracts
Flower: calyx membranous between ribs, membrane splitting or expanding; corolla > calyx, lobes generally ovate
Fruit generally ovoid; chambers 3, valves separating from top
Seeds 3–many, brown, generally gelatinous when wet
Species in genus: ± 70 species: w North America, South America
Etymology: (Felipe Gil, 18th century Spanish botanist)

Native

G. capitata Sims


Stem branched, 10–90 cm, leafy below inflorescence, glabrous, glandular, or with white hairs
Leaves: lower 1–2-pinnate, lobes 5–20 mm, axis and lobes ± 1 mm wide, linear, end lobe generally wider, axils and midribs generally with white hairs; upper cauline reduced or lobes finger-like
Inflorescence: head, terminal, spheric; flowers 50–100
Flower: calyx expanded in fruit, lobes acute to acuminate, membrane width > ribs; corolla tube included, throat generally exserted, lobes linear to oblong; stamens and style exserted; stigmas < 2 mm
Fruit < calyx, ovoid to spheric
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Open, generally sandy to rocky areas
Elevation: < 2100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Channel Islands, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho, Baja California

Native

subsp. capitata


Stem 20–80 cm, glabrous, glandular, or hairy
Leaf 2-pinnate
Inflorescence 14–40 mm wide; pedicels < 1 mm
Flower: calyx generally glabrous, membrane colorless, lobes acute, generally erect; corolla 6–8 mm, pale blue-violet, lobes linear, < 1 mm wide; stigmas < 0.5 mm
Fruit spheric, detaching
Seeds 1–6
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Rocky slopes
Elevation: 100–1900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Idaho
Also in SnFrB, probably as garden escape
Horticultural information: SUN: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 17 &IRR: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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