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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, perennial herb, non-green root-parasites; roots modified into absorptive structures; plant an erect, fleshy, mostly underground stem (peduncle) with terminal inflorescence
Leaf: true leaves 0
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle; bracts alternate, scale-like
Flower bisexual; calyx cylindric or cup-shaped, lobes 0–5, persistent; corolla ± 2-lipped, lobes generally 5; stamens 4, epipetalous in 2 pairs (sometimes a 5th vestigial); ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas generally 2–4, parietal, simple or lobed, stigma generally 2–4-lobed, generally bowl- to funnel-shaped
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal; valves 2–4
Seeds many, small, angled; surface netted
Genera in family: 14 genera, 200 species: especially n temp
Reference: [Thieret 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:404–432]
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include hemiparasitic genera of Scrophulariaceae (e.g., Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria [Olmstead et al. 2001 Mol Phylogen Evol 16:96–112]



Annual, perennial herb, generally glandular-puberulent above; root attachment sometimes tuber-like
Stem simple or branched
Inflorescence generally ± spike-like (lower flowers often short-pedicelled or on short branches), generally dense; flowers generally > 20; bracts generally lanceolate to deltate (wider on peduncle); bractlets 0 or 2
Flower: calyx lobes generally 4–5; corolla glandular-puberulent (hairs short and tack-shaped or long-stalked), generally lacking ring of hairs at stamen bases, upper lip erect to reflexed, generally 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, spreading, yellow-lined; anthers glabrous to hairy; stigma lobes 2, spreading or peltate
Fruit 2-valved; placentas generally 2 or 4, often lobed
Seed < 0.7 mm
Species in genus: 140 species: worldwide, especially Medit
Etymology: (Greek: vetch strangler, from parasitic habit)
Reference: [Heckard 1973 Madroño 22:41–70]


O. uniflora L.


Stem 0.5–5 cm
Inflorescence: generally raceme; flowers generally 1–3; bracts generally < 6, generally glabrous; pedicels 3–12 cm, scapose; bractlets 0
Flower: calyx lobes generally 4–8 mm, > tube, narrowly triangular; corolla 12–35 mm, ± horizontal, purplish to yellowish, lobes generally rounded, finely ciliate; anthers generally hairy; stigma lobes 2, margins recurved
Chromosomes: 2n=36,48,±70
Ecology: Generally moist places, on herbs, especially Sedum, Saxifragaceae, Asteraceae
Elevation: < 3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), Central Western California, South Coast, n Channel Islands, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Yukon, e N.America
Synonyms: var. minuta (Suksd.) D.B. Achey; var. sedi (Suksd.) D.B. Achey; subsp. occidentalis (Greene) Ferris
Variable. Plants < 20 cm, with deep violet corollas 25–35 mm, of n&c CA to Can have been called var. purpurea (A. Heller) D.B. Achey.

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