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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, perennial herb, non-green root-parasites; roots modified into absorptive structures; plant an erect, fleshy, mostly underground stem (peduncle) with terminal inflorescence
Leaf: true leaves 0
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle; bracts alternate, scale-like
Flower bisexual; calyx cylindric or cup-shaped, lobes 0–5, persistent; corolla ± 2-lipped, lobes generally 5; stamens 4, epipetalous in 2 pairs (sometimes a 5th vestigial); ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas generally 2–4, parietal, simple or lobed, stigma generally 2–4-lobed, generally bowl- to funnel-shaped
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal; valves 2–4
Seeds many, small, angled; surface netted
Genera in family: 14 genera, 200 species: especially n temp
Reference: [Thieret 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:404–432]
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include hemiparasitic genera of Scrophulariaceae (e.g., Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria [Olmstead et al. 2001 Mol Phylogen Evol 16:96–112]



Perennial, glabrous
Stems generally simple, annual, 1–many from corm-like thickening surrounding host root
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts densely overlapping, ± ovate; pedicels generally < 2 mm; bractlets on pedicel 0–3, narrow
Flower: calyx cup-shaped, teeth 0–5 (variable on a plant), tip acute or tapered; corolla with ring of hairs in upper tube at base of stamens, upper lip entire or indented, lower lip 3-lobed; upper filament and anther hairy
Fruit 2–4-valved; placenta 1 per valve
Species in genus: 3 species: nw North America, ne Asia
Etymology: (Boschniaki, Russian botanist)
Reference: [Gilkey 1945 OR State Monogr Bot 9]


B. strobilacea A. Gray


Plant 10–30 cm
Inflorescence generally 7–18 cm, 3–6 cm diam, generally reddish brown to dark purplish; lower bracts 15–20 mm, ovate to widely obovate, margin generally pale, tip obtuse to rounded
Flower: calyx cup 2–4 mm, teeth 3–7 mm, narrowly deltate; corolla 15–20 mm, generally purplish (lobe margins pale), lips 5–6 mm, ± equal, lower lip generally spreading
Seed ± 2 mm
Ecology: Open woods, chaparral, on Arctostaphylos or Arbutus
Elevation: < 3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except s Southwestern California)
Distribution outside California: s Oregon; widely scattered, most common Northwestern California, Transverse Ranges

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