|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, aquatic to terrestrial
Stem buried, corm-like, 23-lobed, corky, brown
Leaves simple, in grass-like tufts, spirally arranged on stem top, erect to spreading, < 25 cm, linear above base
Sporangia solitary, embedded in wide leaf base, < 1 cm, ± covered by a translucent membrane, either male or female; male spores > 10,000, < 0.045 mm, ± bean-shaped, gray or brown in mass; female spores 20200, 0.20.7 mm, spheric, white, ± smooth, ridged, tubercled, or prickly
Genera in family: 1 genus, 150 species: worldwide
Reference: [Pfeiffer 1922 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 9:79233]
Etymology: (Greek: evergreen, from the habit of some species)
Perhaps most poorly known pteridophyte genus. Mature female spores, found in decaying leaf bases or soil, critical for identification; hand lens for texture when dry, microscope with micrometer for size.
Hybrids (spores flattened, highly variable) common between aquatic species, making them less distinct.
Plant becoming terrestrial
Leaves deciduous, < 30 cm, rigid, not brittle, gradually tapered to tip, bright green; bases brownish to black
Sporangium: membrane covering < 75%; male spores 0.0250.035 mm, brown in mass; female spores 0.30.5 mm diam, ridged
Ecology: Vernal pools, lake margins
Elevation: generally < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Montana, Utah
Spores mature late spring, summer. Small plants of SCo, WA, Baja CA (leaf < 10 cm, female spore < 0.42 mm) have been called var. minima (A.A. Eaton) Pfeiffer.