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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



W. Carl Taylor and Jon E. Keeley

Perennial, aquatic to terrestrial
Stem buried, corm-like, 2–3-lobed, corky, brown
Leaves simple, in grass-like tufts, spirally arranged on stem top, erect to spreading, < 25 cm, linear above base
Sporangia solitary, embedded in wide leaf base, < 1 cm, ± covered by a translucent membrane, either male or female; male spores > 10,000, < 0.045 mm, ± bean-shaped, gray or brown in mass; female spores 20–200, 0.2–0.7 mm, spheric, white, ± smooth, ridged, tubercled, or prickly
Genera in family: 1 genus, 150 species: worldwide
Reference: [Pfeiffer 1922 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 9:79–233]



Etymology: (Greek: evergreen, from the habit of some species)
Perhaps most poorly known pteridophyte genus. Mature female spores, found in decaying leaf bases or soil, critical for identification; hand lens for texture when dry, microscope with micrometer for size. Hybrids (spores flattened, highly variable) common between aquatic species, making them less distinct.


I. bolanderi Engelm.

Plant underwater
Leaves deciduous, < 20 cm, rigid, not brittle, abruptly tapered to tip, bright green; bases white to brownish
Sporangium: membrane covering < 30%; male spores 0.02–0.03 mm, brown in mass; female spores 0.3–0.5 mm diam, ridged, tubercled
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Persistent lakes, pools
Elevation: > 1500 m (250 m in Marin Co.).
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, n San Francisco Bay Area (Lake Lagunitas, Marin Co.), San Bernardino Mountains, Warner Mountains comment>added "n SnFrB (Lake Lagunitas, Marin Co.),", JAG
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Wyoming, New Mexico
Hybridizes with I. echinospora , I. occidentalis. Spores mature late summer. Small plants of c SNH, NV, AZ (leaf < 2.5 cm) have been called var. pygmaea (Engelm.) Clute.

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