Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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ONAGRACEAE

EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

OENOTHERA

EVENING PRIMROSE

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, generally from taproot
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed
Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of upper, reduced leaves
Flower radial, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or ± purple, generally fading orangish to purplish, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit cylindric to 4-winged, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like)
Seeds in generally 2(1–3) rows per chamber, or clustered
Species in genus: 119 species: Am, some widely naturalized
Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Reference: [Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1–91]
Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and ± 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically ± identical offspring; they are identified as Permanent Translocation Heterozygote.

Native

O. primiveris A. Gray

Annual, rosetted, minutely strigose, in inflorescence generally glandular; hairs also coarse, with red, blister-like bases or not
Stem generally 0 (sometimes erect or ascending, < 3.5 dm)
Leaf 4–28 cm, oblanceolate, wavy-dentate to 1–2-pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers in axils
Flower: hypanthium 20–72 mm; sepals 7–30 mm, free tips in bud 0; petals 6–40 mm, yellow fading reddish orange to purple
Fruit 10–60 mm, 4–8 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, straight, curved, or S-shaped
Seed 3–3.5 mm, irregularly obovate to oblanceolate, papillate, 1 side coarsely wrinkled in distal 1/2, other side with thick, U-shaped area forming groove and small cavity at tip
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Sandy flats, low hills, dune margins, arroyos
Elevation: 30–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Desert
Distribution outside California: ± sw US, n Mexico
Self- or cross-pollinated. 2 intergrading subspp.

Native

subsp. primiveris


Leaf generally green
Flower: petals 6–25(28) mm
Ecology: Uncommon. Habitats of sp
Elevation:
Bioregional distribution: Desert
Distribution outside California: to Texas, nw Mexico
Flowering time: Mar–May
Synonyms: subsp. caulescens (Munz) Munz
Self-pollinated
Horticultural information: TRY.

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bioregional map for OENOTHERA%20primiveris%20subsp.%20primiveris being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Oenothera primiveris subsp. primiveris
Retrieve dichotomous key for Oenothera
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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