Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.

ONAGRACEAE

EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

OENOTHERA

EVENING PRIMROSE

Annual, biennial, perennial herb, generally from taproot
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed
Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of upper, reduced leaves
Flower radial, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or ± purple, generally fading orangish to purplish, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit cylindric to 4-winged, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like)
Seeds in generally 2(1–3) rows per chamber, or clustered
Species in genus: 119 species: Am, some widely naturalized
Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Reference: [Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:1–91]
Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and ± 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically ± identical offspring; they are identified as Permanent Translocation Heterozygote.

Native

O. deltoides Torr. & Frémont

DEVIL'S LANTERN, LION-IN-A-CAGE, BASKET EVENING PRIMROSE

Annual, perennial herb, loosely rosetted; hairs 0, curly, or straight, also sometimes glandular
Stem decumbent or erect, 2–10 dm, stout, spongy, peeling
Leaves: cauline 2–15 cm, ± diamond-shaped-obovate to oblanceolate, subentire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers in upper axils; buds nodding
Flower: hypanthium 20–40 mm; sepals 8–30 mm, free tips in bud 0–9 mm; petals 10–40 mm, white fading pink
Fruit 20–60(80) mm, 1.5–4(5) mm wide, cylindric, generally curved, ± twisted
Seeds in 1 row per chamber, 1.5–2 mm, obovate, smooth
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Sandy, often dunes
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Joaquin Valley, ne San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Modoc Plateau, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Utah, Arizona, nw Mexico
Generally cross-pollinated. 5 subspp., 4 in CA.

Native

subsp. howellii (Munz) Klein

ANTIOCH DUNES EVENING PRIMROSE

Perennial, grayish green; hairs spreading, 1–3 mm, wavy, also minutely strigose, also sometimes glandular
Stem generally 4–8 dm, ± branched throughout
Leaves: upper wavy-lobed
Flower: bud tip obtuse; free sepal tips 1–9 mm; petals 20–40 mm
Fruit: base 3–4 mm wide
Ecology: Sandy bluffs, dunes
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Coast (Antioch, Contra Costa Co.).Populations with few to ± 150 plants at any one time
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for OENOTHERA%20deltoides%20subsp.%20howellii being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Oenothera deltoides subsp. howellii
Retrieve dichotomous key for Oenothera
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
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