|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(27); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1278]
Annual, biennial, perennial herb, generally from taproot
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, generally pinnately toothed to lobed
Inflorescence: spike, raceme-like, or flowers in axils of upper, reduced leaves
Flower radial, generally opening at dusk; sepals 4, reflexed in flower (sometimes 23 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, rose, or ± purple, generally fading orangish to purplish, tip notched or toothed; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers 4, stigma deeply lobed, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit cylindric to 4-winged, straight to curved, generally sessile (base sometimes seedless, stalk-like)
Seeds in generally 2(13) rows per chamber, or clustered
Species in genus: 119 species: Am, some widely naturalized
Etymology: (Greek: wine-scented)
Reference: [Dietrich & Wagner 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 24:191]
Many species self-pollinated; some of these have chromosome peculiarities (ring of 14 in meiosis) and ± 50% pollen fertility; they yield genetically ± identical offspring; they are identified as Permanent Translocation Heterozygote.
Annual, perennial herb, loosely rosetted; hairs 0, curly, or straight, also sometimes glandular
Stem decumbent or erect, 210 dm, stout, spongy, peeling
Leaves: cauline 215 cm, ± diamond-shaped-obovate to oblanceolate, subentire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers in upper axils; buds nodding
Flower: hypanthium 2040 mm; sepals 830 mm, free tips in bud 09 mm; petals 1040 mm, white fading pink
Fruit 2060(80) mm, 1.54(5) mm wide, cylindric, generally curved, ± twisted
Seeds in 1 row per chamber, 1.52 mm, obovate, smooth
Ecology: Sandy, often dunes
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Joaquin Valley, ne San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Modoc Plateau, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Utah, Arizona, nw Mexico
Generally cross-pollinated. 5 subspp., 4 in CA.
Perennial, grayish green; hairs spreading, 13 mm, wavy, also minutely strigose, also sometimes glandularSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem generally 48 dm, ± branched throughout
Leaves: upper wavy-lobed
Flower: bud tip obtuse; free sepal tips 19 mm; petals 2040 mm
Fruit: base 34 mm wide
Ecology: Sandy bluffs, dunes
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Coast (Antioch, Contra Costa Co.).Populations with few to ± 150 plants at any one time
Horticultural information: In cultivation.