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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]



Peter C. Hoch

Annual to subshrub, sometimes floating or rooting at nodes
Leaves alternate to opposite, simple; stipules generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike; flowers 1 per bract
Flower radial; hypanthium 0; sepals 4–5(7), persistent; petals (0)4–5(7), white to yellow; stamens 4 or 10(12), pollen generally shed singly in CA; stigma club-shaped to spheric
Fruit dehiscing irregularly; wall thick or thin
Seeds free or embedded in fruit wall
Species in genus: 82 species: ± worldwide
Etymology: (C.G. Ludwig, German botanist and physician, 1709–1773)
Reference: [Raven 1963 Reinwardtia 6:327–427]
Many polyploids.


L. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini, H. Gu & P.H. Raven

Perennial or subshrub, sometimes floating or rooting at nodes
Stem 2–20 dm, prostrate to erect, simple or branched above, glabrous to spreading-hairy
Leaves 1–11 cm, alternate; blade narrowly elliptic to widely obovate, entire, subglabrous
Flower: sepals 5(6), 8–19 mm; petals 5(6), 15–30 mm; stamens 10(12) in 2 unequal sets, anthers 1.5–4 mm
Fruit reflexed, falling with 10–60 mm pedicel; body 12–30 mm, cylindric, tapered to pedicel, ± hairy
Seed 1.2–1.5 mm, embedded in inner fruit wall
Chromosomes: 2n=80
Ecology: Swamps, lake margins
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, s Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: to Washington, se US, s S.America, introduced into Europe
Synonyms: Jussiaea uruguayensis Cambess

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