Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]


Annual, biennial, perennial herb, from woody caudex, rhizome, or taproot
Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, sessile; margin generally wavy-dentate
Inflorescence: spike, terminal, bracted
Flower generally bilateral, opening at dusk or dawn; sepals generally 4, generally widely opening; petals generally 4, white or yellow, often fading reddish or purplish; stamens 8, filaments generally with paired teeth at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary chambers generally 4 (in fruit 1), stigma deeply lobed, generally elevated above anthers (plant then cross-pollinated)
Fruit indehiscent, ± erect, nut-like, generally 4-angled or -winged; walls woody; base stalk-like or not
Seeds generally 3–4, generally 2–3 mm, ovoid, generally flat-sided, yellowish to pale brown
Species in genus: 21 species: temp North America (especially TX), C.Am
Etymology: (Greek: proud, from showy flowers of some)
Reference: [Raven & Gregory 1972 Mem Torrey Bot Club 23:1–96]


G. coccinea Pursh


Perennial, generally minutely strigose and with long spreading hairs, or ± glabrous; caudex woody, branched below ground
Stem 10–120 cm
Leaf 10–70 mm, linear to narrow-elliptic, entire to coarsely wavy-serrate
Inflorescence: bracts 2–5 mm
Flower: hypanthium 4–13 mm; sepals 5–10 mm; petals 3–8 mm
Fruit erect or spreading, 4–9 mm, 4-angled; stalk-like base short, thick, > 1/2 diam of widest part
Seed 1.5–3 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=14,42,56
Ecology: Dry slopes, generally limestone, Joshua-tree or pinyon/juniper woodland
Elevation: 900–1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Desert Mountains (naturalized in Tehachapi Mountain Area, Southwestern California)
Distribution outside California: to w Canada, c US, Mexico
Flowering time: Apr–Jun
Synonyms: var. glabra (Lehm.) Torr. & A. Gray
Though native, may become weedy
Horticultural information: TRY; INV.

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