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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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ONAGRACEAE

EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

EPILOBIUM

FIREWEED, WILLOW HERB

Peter C. Hoch

Annual to subshrub
Leaves generally opposite below (or clustered in axils), generally ± fine-toothed; veins generally obscure
Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted
Flower radial or ± bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, generally notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4's, generally cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like
Fruit straight, cylindric to club-like
Seeds generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft
Species in genus: 171 species: worldwide except tropical
Recent taxonomic note: Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium latifolium now treated in Chamerion. See Hoch 1999 Flora of Japan IIc: 241; Baum et al. 1994 Syst Bot 19:363–388.
Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary)
Reference: [Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326–340]
Incl Boisduvalia , Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers ± = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids.

Native

E. ciliatum Raf.

Perennial < 19 dm, loosely clumped, with basal rosettes or fleshy bulblets, generally strigose in lines or spreading-hairy
Leaf 1–15 cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate; veins conspicuous; petiole 0–8 mm
Inflorescence densely strigose, ± spreading-hairy, generally glandular
Flower: hypanthium 0.5–2.6 mm; sepals 2–7.5 mm; petals 2–14 mm, white to rose-purple; stamens < or = pistil; stigma club- or head-like
Fruit 15–100 mm, hairy; pedicels 0–30 mm
Seed 0.8–1.9 mm, ridged
Chromosomes: 2n=36
Ecology: Abundant. Disturbed places, moist meadows, streambanks, roadsides
Elevation: < 4100 m.
Bioregional distribution: ± California
Distribution outside California: most of N.America, e Asia, s S.America, introduced in Australasia, Europe, w Asia

Native

subsp. ciliatum

Rosettes well developed
Leaf lanceolate
Inflorescence openly branched, not leafy
Flower: petals 2–6(9) mm, white to pink
Ecology: Common. Habitats and range ± of sp
Elevation:
Bioregional distribution: ± California
Flowering time: Jul–Oct
Synonyms: E. adenocaulon Hausskn. including vars. holosericeum (Trel.) Munz, occidentale Trel., and parishii (Trel.) Munz

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bioregional map for EPILOBIUM%20ciliatum%20subsp.%20ciliatum being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum
Retrieve dichotomous key for Epilobium
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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