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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]



Peter C. Hoch

Annual to subshrub
Leaves generally opposite below (or clustered in axils), generally ± fine-toothed; veins generally obscure
Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted
Flower radial or ± bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, generally notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4's, generally cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like
Fruit straight, cylindric to club-like
Seeds generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft
Species in genus: 171 species: worldwide except tropical
Recent taxonomic note: Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium latifolium now treated in Chamerion. See Hoch 1999 Flora of Japan IIc: 241; Baum et al. 1994 Syst Bot 19:363–388.
Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary)
Reference: [Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326–340]
Incl Boisduvalia , Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers ± = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids.


E. ciliatum Raf.

Perennial < 19 dm, loosely clumped, with basal rosettes or fleshy bulblets, generally strigose in lines or spreading-hairy
Leaf 1–15 cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate; veins conspicuous; petiole 0–8 mm
Inflorescence densely strigose, ± spreading-hairy, generally glandular
Flower: hypanthium 0.5–2.6 mm; sepals 2–7.5 mm; petals 2–14 mm, white to rose-purple; stamens < or = pistil; stigma club- or head-like
Fruit 15–100 mm, hairy; pedicels 0–30 mm
Seed 0.8–1.9 mm, ridged
Chromosomes: 2n=36
Ecology: Abundant. Disturbed places, moist meadows, streambanks, roadsides
Elevation: < 4100 m.
Bioregional distribution: ± California
Distribution outside California: most of N.America, e Asia, s S.America, introduced in Australasia, Europe, w Asia


subsp. ciliatum

Rosettes well developed
Leaf lanceolate
Inflorescence openly branched, not leafy
Flower: petals 2–6(9) mm, white to pink
Ecology: Common. Habitats and range ± of sp
Bioregional distribution: ± California
Flowering time: Jul–Oct
Synonyms: E. adenocaulon Hausskn. including vars. holosericeum (Trel.) Munz, occidentale Trel., and parishii (Trel.) Munz

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