|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(27); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1278]
Stem prostrate to erect, < 1.5 m, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent; hairs rarely long and spreading
Leaf simple, pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 110 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent
Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds erect or not
Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4's or 2's, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 560 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider above, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or reddish; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider above, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent
Fruit: generally capsule, elongate, rarely short, indehiscent, nut-like
Seeds generally many, rarely 12, 0.52 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray or mottled
Species in genus: ± 41 species: w North America, 1 South America
Etymology: (Captain William Clark, 17701838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition)
Reference: [Lewis & Lewis 1955 UC Publ Bot 20:241392]
Self-compatible or -pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.
Stem erect, < 8 dm
Leaf: petiole 05 mm; blade 27 cm, lanceolate, glaucous, gray-green
Inflorescence: axis in bud straight; buds reflexed
Flower: hypanthium 23 mm; sepals staying fused in 4's, green, red-tinged or not, sparsely to densely puberulent; corolla rotate, petals 12.5 cm, lavender-pink, claw ± = or > blade, slender, blade ± diamond-shaped, spot purplish or 0; stamens 8, outer anthers lavender to red, inner smaller, paler; ovary 8- grooved, hairs as on sepals, stigma beyond anthers or not
Fruit 1.53 cm, ± 3 mm wide
Ecology: Dry grassland, scrub
Elevation: 100500 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, Inner South Coast Ranges.
Hybrids between subspp. have low fertility.
Flower: petals generally < 10 mm wide; stigma beyond anthers or not
Ecology: Habitats, elevations, range of sp
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, Inner South Coast Ranges
Horticultural information: TRY.