Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]


Harlan Lewis

Stem prostrate to erect, < 1.5 m, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent; hairs rarely long and spreading
Leaf simple, pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 1–10 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent
Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds erect or not
Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4's or 2's, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 5–60 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider above, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or reddish; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider above, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent
Fruit: generally capsule, elongate, rarely short, indehiscent, nut-like
Seeds generally many, rarely 1–2, 0.5–2 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray or mottled
Species in genus: ± 41 species: w North America, 1 South America
Etymology: (Captain William Clark, 1770–1838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition)
Reference: [Lewis & Lewis 1955 UC Publ Bot 20:241–392]
Self-compatible or -pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.

Information on Stem description was contributed by Bob Allen (15 Aug 2004):
I think that should read prostRate, not prostate


C. biloba (Durand) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.

Stem erect, < 1 m, puberulent
Leaf: petiole < 1.5 cm; blade 2–6 cm, linear to lanceolate
Inflorescence: axis in bud recurved at tip; buds pendent
Flower: hypanthium 1–4 mm; sepals staying fused in 4's, pink or purplish red; corolla rotate to bowl-shaped, petals 1–2.5 cm, narrowly wedge- to fan-shaped, lavender to bright pink or magenta, often red-flecked, lobes 2, tooth between 0; stamens 8, outer anthers lavender, inner smaller, paler; ovary 8-grooved, stigma beyond anthers
Ecology: Dry sites
Elevation: 300–1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Francisco Bay Area.Sspp. intergrade.


subsp. biloba

Leaf narrow-lanceolate
Flower: petals purplish pink, length generally not > 1.5 X width, lobes generally 1/5–1/2 petal
Chromosomes: n=8
Ecology: Foothill woodland, serpentine or not
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Francisco Bay Area
Horticultural information: DRY: 1, 6, 15, 16, 17; IRR: 7, 22, 23, 24 &SHD: 8, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21.

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bioregional map for CLARKIA%20biloba%20subsp.%20biloba being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Clarkia biloba subsp. biloba
Retrieve dichotomous key for Clarkia
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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