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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]



Peter C. Hoch

Perennial from tuber-tipped rhizomes or stolons
Leaves opposite, petioled, entire to toothed
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally bracted
Flower biradial; sepals 2, often reflexed; petals 2, erect; stamens 2, pollen yellow, grains shed singly; ovary chambers 1–2
Fruit indehiscent, generally club-shaped, hooked-hairy
Seeds 1 per chamber, adhering to inner fruit wall
Species in genus: 8 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: Circe, the enchantress)
Reference: [Boufford 1982 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 69:804–994]
Often self-pollinated.


C. alpina L. subsp. pacifica (Asch. & Magnus) P.H. Raven

Stem 1–5 dm, simple, erect, slender, cylindric, generally densely strigose
Leaf 3–11 cm, ovate to ± round, glabrous or ± hairy; base round to ± cordate; tip acute; petiole 1.5–5 cm
Inflorescence: raceme, erect, densely strigose and glandular; pedicel in fruit 2–5 mm
Flower: hypanthium 0.3–0.5 mm; sepals 1–2 mm, white, reflexed; petals 1–1.5 mm, white; stamens ± = pistil; stigma 2-lobed
Fruit ± 2 mm, 1-chambered
Chromosomes: 2n=22
Ecology: Cool, moist, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to w Canada, Montana, New Mexico
Horticultural information: WET: 1, 2, 6 &SHD: 4, 5, 7, 14, 15, 16; DFCLT.

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bioregional map for CIRCAEA%20alpina%20subsp.%20pacifica being generated

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