|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(27); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1278]
Annual, perennial herb, from taproot or lateral roots
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, alternate, simple to 2-pinnate
Inflorescence bracted; spike, raceme, or flowers solitary in axils
Flower radial, generally opening at dawn (rarely at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed (sometimes 23 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, lavender, often with darker basal spots, generally fading purplish or reddish; stamens (4)8, longer ones opposite sepals, anthers generally attached at middle (or base), pollen grains 3-angled except in polyploid taxa (visible with hand lens); ovary chambers 4, stigma ± head-like or hemispheric, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit straight to coiled, generally sessile
Seeds in 12 rows per chamber
Species in genus: 62 species: w North America (especially CA-FP), 1 South America
Etymology: (L.A. von Chamisso, French-born German botanist, 17811838)
Reference: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161396]
Polyploidy and self-pollination have predominated in evolution of genus. Previously included in Oenothera (" O." in synonyms).
Perennial; taproot woody, new shoots from lateral roots; hairs generally ± dense (sparse), short, spreading or appressed
Leaf 65320 mm, narrowly elliptic, deeply and irregularly pinnately lobed; petiole 1080 mm
Flower: hypanthium 46.5(8.5) mm, closed by fleshy disk; sepals 5.513 mm; petals 823 mm, yellow; anthers attached at base; sterile tip of ovary 1455 mm
Fruit 725 mm, long-tapered, swollen by seeds, leathery, ± straight or slightly curved, disintegrating irregularly
Seeds in 2 rows per chamber, 1.52 mm, pitted in rows, pale brown
Ecology: Open fields, moist slopes, clay soils
Elevation: 7002500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, Nevada
Synonyms: O. t. Torr. & A. Gray
Plant: hairs dense, spreadingSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Flower: > 10% of pollen grains 4-angled
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Clay flats, sagebrush scrub
Elevation: 13001500 m.
Bioregional distribution: n High Sierra Nevada (Plumas, Sierra cos.), Modoc Plateau (Lassen Co.).Locally common
Horticultural information: TRY.