Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]



Annual, perennial herb, from taproot or lateral roots
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, alternate, simple to 2-pinnate
Inflorescence bracted; spike, raceme, or flowers solitary in axils
Flower radial, generally opening at dawn (rarely at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, lavender, often with darker basal spots, generally fading purplish or reddish; stamens (4)8, longer ones opposite sepals, anthers generally attached at middle (or base), pollen grains 3-angled except in polyploid taxa (visible with hand lens); ovary chambers 4, stigma ± head-like or hemispheric, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit straight to coiled, generally sessile
Seeds in 1–2 rows per chamber
Species in genus: 62 species: w North America (especially CA-FP), 1 South America
Etymology: (L.A. von Chamisso, French-born German botanist, 1781–1838)
Reference: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]
Polyploidy and self-pollination have predominated in evolution of genus. Previously included in Oenothera (" O." in synonyms).


C. claviformis (Torr. & Frémont) P.H. Raven

Stem 3–70 cm
Leaves generally basal, generally 1-pinnate; terminal leaflet 8–90 mm, lanceolate to cordate; lateral leaflets < 25 mm or 0
Inflorescence nodding
Flower generally opening at dusk; hypanthium 1–6.5 mm; sepals 2–8 mm, tips in bud free and subterminal or not; petals 1.5–8 mm, yellow or white; stamens ± equal
Fruit ascending or spreading, 8–38 mm, wider to tip, straight or curved; pedicel 4–40 mm
Seeds in 2 rows per chamber, 0.6–1.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Sandy or rocky slopes or washes
Elevation: -70–2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, nw Mexico
Synonyms: O. c. Torr. & Frémont
Cross-pollinated; most complex, widespread sp. in genus; 11 subspp., 8 in CA.


subsp. claviformis

Plant glabrous or strigose below, ± glabrous or glandular-hairy above
Leaf: terminal leaflet < 60 mm, narrowly ovate, purple-dotted or not; lateral leaflets generally large
Flower: hypanthium 3–5.5 mm; sepal tips free in bud, conspicuous; petals 3.5–8 mm, white (pale yellow) generally fading purple, bases purple-dotted or not
Ecology: Alluvial slopes, flats, creosote-bush scrub
Elevation: 850–1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Mojave Desert and edges
Flowering time: Mar–May
Intergrades widely and gradually with subspp. aurantiaca, funerea ; hybridizes with C. brevipes subsp. b
Horticultural information: TRY.

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bioregional map for CAMISSONIA%20claviformis%20subsp.%20claviformis being generated

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