|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, trees, generally stellate-hairy; juice sticky; inner bark tough, fibrous
Leaves alternate, simple, petioled; blade generally palmately veined or lobed, stipules present
Inflorescence often leafy; whorl or involucre of bractlets often subtending calyx
Flower generally bisexual, radial; calyx lobes 5, margins abutting in bud; petals 5, free (fused at base to filament tube, so falling together); stamens many, filaments fused into a tube surrounding style, tube fused in turn to petal bases; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 5 or more, style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 2 X as many as chambers
Fruit of 5many disk- or wedge-shaped segments, loculicidal capsule, or berry
Genera in family: 100 genera, 2000 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus , okra; Alcea ; Gossypium , cotton; Hibiscus , Malvaviscus )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Sterculiaceae [Angiosperm phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531553; Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:14741486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267303]
Mature fruit important for identification.
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes from long, creeping rhizomes
Stem generally erect or base ± decumbent
Leaves generally mostly from near stem base; lowest blades generally crenate to shallowly lobed, upper blades generally deeply lobed (generally ± compound)
Inflorescence generally spike- or panicle-like, generally more open in fruit; bracts at pedicel base 2, generally stipule-like; bractlets subtending calyx generally 0(3)
Flower: calyx lobes = or > tube; petals purple or rose-pink to white; stamen-tube with generally 2 series of ± fused filaments near tip; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches
Fruit: segments generally 510, indehiscent, generally ± beaked, walls thin
Seed 1 per fruit segment
Species in genus: ± 25 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: combination of 2 names for mallow)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Wash Publ Biol 18:196]
Highly variable and difficult, with many local forms; some plants will not key with certainty. Additional work warranted.
Annual or perennial herb from rhizome
Stem 39 dm, glabrous or sparsely hairy
Leaf: lowest blades generally crenate; upper blades nearly compound with 511 linear to oblanceolate divisions
Inflorescence dense; bracts simple or 2-lobed
Flower: calyx 412 mm, often purple-tinged or scarious, ± bristly, lobes narrowly ovate, acuminate; petals 1225 mm, pale purple (rarely white); filaments in 2 distinct continuous series
Fruit: segment 2.54.5 mm, back longitudinally grooved, glabrous
Ecology: Marshes, wet places in woodlands or valleys
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, n San Francisco Bay Area.
Stem slender; base sometimes decumbent and rooting
Leaf: stipule 25 mm; blade generally 25 cm wide
Inflorescence: bracts 25 mm
Flower: calyx 47 mm; petals 1220 mm
Fruit: segment ± 2.5 mm, back moderately grooved, sides net-veined
Ecology: Wet places, especially vernal pools, swales
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n San Francisco Bay Area
Horticultural information: winter WET or IRR, DRN, SUN: 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.