Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, trees
Stem angled or cylindric
Leaves simple, entire, generally opposite, sometimes alternate or whorled
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or panicle, terminal, or axillary clusters with 1–several flowers
Flower bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium cylindric to bell-shaped, generally membranous, persistent in fruit; sepals 4–6, generally persistent, appendages 3–5 or 0, alternate sepals; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4–6 or 0, alternate sepals, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 X petals, included or exserted; ovary superior, chambers 2–6, style generally slender, stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, opening by valves from top, splitting sometimes irregular or 0
Seeds 3–many
Genera in family: ± 25 genera, 450 species: temp, tropical, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes
Reference: [Graham 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:235–250]


Annual, perennial herb, glabrous
Stem ascending to erect, angled
Leaves opposite, 4-ranked (rarely whorled)
Inflorescence: spike; flower 1 per axil, subtended by leaf-like bract
Flower radial; hypanthium bell-shaped; sepals generally 4, appendages 4 or 0; petals 4, tiny, < sepals; stamens generally 4, ± included
Fruit oblong to ± spheric, dehiscent by 2–4 valves
Seeds many, < 1 mm
Species in genus: ± 45 species: temp, tropical
Etymology: (Latin: wheel-like)
Reference: [Cook 1979 Boissiera 29:7–156]


R. indica (Willd.) Koehne

Stem decumbent to erect, generally branched, 1–3 dm
Leaf 0.5–2 cm, oblong to obovate; margins thick
Inflorescence: flower 1 per axil or in short, axillary spikes
Flower: hypanthium < 2 mm; sepals deltate; appendages 0; petals pink
Fruit oblong, generally 2-valved
Ecology: Marshes, ponds
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sacramento Valley (Butte Co.)
Distribution outside California: rice-field weed in Europe; native to se Asia

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