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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, trees
Stem angled or cylindric
Leaves simple, entire, generally opposite, sometimes alternate or whorled
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or panicle, terminal, or axillary clusters with 1–several flowers
Flower bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium cylindric to bell-shaped, generally membranous, persistent in fruit; sepals 4–6, generally persistent, appendages 3–5 or 0, alternate sepals; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4–6 or 0, alternate sepals, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 X petals, included or exserted; ovary superior, chambers 2–6, style generally slender, stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, opening by valves from top, splitting sometimes irregular or 0
Seeds 3–many
Genera in family: ± 25 genera, 450 species: temp, tropical, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes
Reference: [Graham 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:235–250]


Annual, perennial herb
Stem prostrate to erect, sometimes 4-angled
Leaves opposite, alternate, or whorled, linear to ovate, sessile or short-petioled
Inflorescence: raceme- or spike-like; flowers generally 1–2 per axil; bracts 2 per node
Flower radial to slightly bilateral, sometimes of 2–3 forms (heterostyly); hypanthium cylindric to bell-shaped; sepals 4–6, appendages < to > sepals; petals 4–6 or 0; stamens 4–6 or 12, included or exserted; styles < to > stamens
Fruit generally cylindric, generally dehiscent by 2 valves
Seeds many, < 1 mm
Species in genus: ± 35 species: temp
Etymology: (Greek: blood, from flower color)
Reference: [Stuckey 1980 Bartonia 47:3–20]


L. californicum Torr. & A. Gray


Perennial, heterostylous
Stem erect, 2–6 dm, generally branching above; branches spreading to ascending, glabrous
Leaves: lower opposite; upper alternate, 1–7 cm, linear to linear-lanceolate, ± glaucous
Inflorescence terminal, ± spike-like; bracts generally linear; pedicels 1–2 mm
Flowers of 2 style forms; hypanthium cylindric, 4–7 mm; sepals narrowly deltate, < 1 mm, ± = appendages; petals 4–8 mm, purple; stamens generally 6, included; style included or exserted
Fruit ovoid, ± = hypanthium
Chromosomes: 2n=20
Ecology: Marshes, pond and stream margins
Elevation: < 2200 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert
Distribution outside California: to c US, n Mexico
Flowering time: Apr–Sep
Horticultural information: INV; STBL.

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