Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]



Barrett H. Anderson and Barry D. Tanowitz

Annual, perennial herb, hairy, often glandular; rhizome slender or 0
Stem decumbent to erect, 1–25 dm
Leaves 1.5–18 cm; lower generally petioled; upper ± sessile; blades oblong to ovate, serrate to crenate
Inflorescence: spike of ± sessile clusters, generally terminal, interrupted or continuous, bracted
Flower: calyx bell-shaped, radial to ± 2-lipped, veins 5–10, lobes 5, erect or spreading, triangular, tips sharp; corolla white, pink, red, magenta, or purple, tube narrow, with internal ring of hairs generally above base, perpendicular to oblique to tube axis, sometimes narrowed on lower surface, upper lip erect or generally parallel to tube axis, concave, entire, rarely notched, generally hairy, lower lip perpendicular to tube axis or reflexed, 3-, rarely 2-lobed, glabrous to hairy
Fruit oblong to ovoid, brown to black
Species in genus: ± 300 species: temp (except Australia); some cultivated for ornamental
Etymology: (Greek: ear of corn, from inflorescence)
Reference: [Epling 1934 Fedde Rep Sp Nov Regni Veg 80:1–75]


S. ajugoides Benth.

Stem branched or not
Leaf: petiole 1.5–6 cm
Inflorescence > 5 cm, interrupted; bracts sometimes long, leafy
Flower: calyx tube 3–6 mm, hairs 0 or soft to stiff, sometimes glandular; corolla tube 6–11 mm, sometimes spurred or sac-like, ring of hairs > 2 mm from base, upper lip 2.5–5 mm, lower lip 4.5–8.5 mm
Ecology: Generally moist places, sometimes dry hillsides, many communities
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Baja California


var. rigida (Benth.) Jeps. & Hoover

Stem generally erect to ± decumbent, 6–10 dm, ± glabrous to soft- or stiff-hairy, sometimes glandular
Leaf: blade 5–9 cm, ovate to lanceolate, glabrous or soft-hairy to densely felt-like, sometimes glandular, base rounded to ± cordate, tip acute to obtuse
Inflorescence: clusters 6–16-flowered
Flower: corolla pink to magenta or purplish, tube 6–10 mm, ring of hairs strongly oblique
Ecology: Moist to ± dry places
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (very uncommon in Desert)
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Baja California
Flowering time: Jul–Aug
Synonyms: S. r. Benth. including subsp. lanata Epling, subsp. quercetorum (A. Heller) Epling, subsp. rivularis (A. Heller) Epling; S. emersonii Piper; S. mexicana Benth
Horticultural information: STBL.

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