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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]


Perennial, glabrous to hairy
Stems erect, simple or branched above middle
Leaves petioled to subsessile
Inflorescences head-like, axillary at upper nodes and terminal, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers subsessile
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, lobes ± equal, deltate, acute to awned; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, ± flat, lower lip 3-lobed, lobes ± equal; stamens 4
Fruit: smooth or puberulent
Species in genus: 17 species: North America
Etymology: (Greek: densely flowered)


P. californicum Torr.

Plant 5–10 dm
Stem glabrous to puberulent
Leaves > internodes, ± overlapping; petiole < 3 mm; blade 2.5–7.5 cm, generally ovate to widely lanceolate, base ± rounded, tip generally acute, entire to finely toothed, glabrous to puberulent
Inflorescences 2–5, head-like; lower subtended by ± elliptic leaves; upper subtended by linear-lanceolate bracts
Flower: calyx 4–5.5 mm, puberulent, lobes densely short-hairy; corolla 5–6.5 mm, white, upper lip 2.5–3 mm, lower lip ± 2–3 mm, purple- or violet-spotted
Chromosomes: 2n=40
Ecology: Moist sites, chaparral, oak woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: 500–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, n North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n Sacramento Valley, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Horticultural information: IRR, SUN: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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