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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]



Perennial, glabrous to hairy, generally with bisexual flowers only, sometimes with only pistillate flowers
Stems prostrate to erect, sometimes rooting at lower nodes
Leaves basal and cauline, generally petioled; blade generally entire
Inflorescences densely clustered, collectively ± spike-like, terminal; bract generally wide, abruptly acuminate
Flower: calyx 2-lipped, upper = lower, upper lip 3-toothed, lower 2-lobed; corolla finely hairy inside, 2-lipped, lower lip 3-lobed, upper lip ± entire, hood-like, ± enclosing stamens; stamens 4, lower pair > upper, filament minutely toothed below anther
Fruit: nutlets obovoid
Species in genus: 4 species: temp, especially Eurasia
Etymology: (Latin: from early German name for plant used to treat chest pains)


P. vulgaris L.

Stem 1–5 dm, glabrous to short-hairy
Leaves: lower petioled, petiole 5–30 mm; upper subsessile; blade 2–7 cm, generally 1–4 cm wide, ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, base generally wedge-shaped
Inflorescence 2–6.5 cm; bract margin ciliate, reddish
Flower: calyx 7–11 mm, dark green to purplish; corolla 12–15 mm in bisexual flowers, 8–11 mm in pistillate flowers, bluish violet, sometimes pink or white
Chromosomes: 2n=28,32
Ecology: Moist areas
Elevation: < 2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: circumboreal

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