Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]


James D. Jokerst

Annual, perennial herb, ± gland-dotted
Leaves entire to serrate
Inflorescence: heads 1 or more per main stem, sometimes arrayed in spikes or panicles; bracts in 2–3 series (outer series (0)1–2 pairs, ± like leaves, 0–several mm below heads, erect to reflexed; middle series 2–4 pairs, like leaves to papery or leathery, sometimes straw-colored to purple, erect in cup-like involucre to reflexed; inner series 0–few pairs, membranous, linear-lanceolate)
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, generally < 12 mm; corolla white to purple, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed
Species in genus: ± 20 species: w North America
Etymology: (Latin: small Monarda )
Reference: [Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1–106]
Complex; hybrids common, often outnumbering non-hybrids; head width and bract orientation given for unpressed specimens
Horticultural information: often DFCLT. Many subsp., subspp., or populations have exacting soil requirements.


M. villosa Benth.


Perennial, matted to erect, open, rhizomed; hairs generally > 0.5 mm, soft, wavy, or woolly, glandular and not
Leaf 10–30 mm, ± ovate, entire to serrate; base truncate to obtuse or tapered; lower surface glandular-hairy, woolly or not
Inflorescence: head 20–40 mm wide; bracts 10–30 mm, reflexed; outer and middle bracts like leaves in texture, color, hairiness (or innermost of middle series ± scarious below)
Flower: calyx shaggy-glandular-hairy; corolla 10–18 mm, obtuse, purple, pink, or white
Ecology: Rocky slopes, ephemeral drainages, oak woodland, chaparral, montane forest
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California.Sspp. distinct except where they co-occur and hybrids occupy transitional habitats.


subsp. villosa

Plant erect, < 50 cm, open; hairs ± 0 to dense, wavy, soft, unbranched
Leaf: blade 10–22 mm, lower surface woolly to sparsely hairy, base obtuse
Inflorescence: head 10–30 mm wide; outer bracts 8–20 mm
Flower: corolla pink to purple
Ecology: Habitats and range of sp
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California
Synonyms: subsp. subserrata (Greene) Epling
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY or IRR: 15, 16, 17, 24 &SHD: 7, 8, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23; CVS.

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bioregional map for MONARDELLA%20villosa%20subsp.%20villosa being generated

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