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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]


James D. Jokerst

Annual, perennial herb, ± gland-dotted
Leaves entire to serrate
Inflorescence: heads 1 or more per main stem, sometimes arrayed in spikes or panicles; bracts in 2–3 series (outer series (0)1–2 pairs, ± like leaves, 0–several mm below heads, erect to reflexed; middle series 2–4 pairs, like leaves to papery or leathery, sometimes straw-colored to purple, erect in cup-like involucre to reflexed; inner series 0–few pairs, membranous, linear-lanceolate)
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, generally < 12 mm; corolla white to purple, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed
Species in genus: ± 20 species: w North America
Etymology: (Latin: small Monarda )
Reference: [Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1–106]
Complex; hybrids common, often outnumbering non-hybrids; head width and bract orientation given for unpressed specimens
Horticultural information: often DFCLT. Many subsp., subspp., or populations have exacting soil requirements.


M. purpurea Howell


Perennial, erect, open, ± glabrous
Stem 10–40 cm, dark purple, shiny; internodes generally = or > leaves
Leaf 15–30 mm, oblong-lanceolate, shiny, deep green, leathery; margin rolled under, serrate or not
Inflorescence: head 15–25 mm wide, obscurely gland-dotted; outer bracts sometimes not much like leaves; middle bracts ± ovate, leathery, purple-tinged
Flower: calyx 6–8 mm, lobes long-pointed, purple, stiff-hairy, obscurely gland-dotted; corolla 12–14 mm, exserted, rose or purple, lobes > 1/2 tube
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Rocky slopes, often serpentine or related bedrock, chaparral, woodland, montane forest
Elevation: 400–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Synonyms: M. odoratissima subsp. neglecta (Greene) Epling
Hybrids with M. villosa (common in SnFrB and SCoRO, with leaves ovate to triangular, ± glabrous) have been called M. villosa var. subglabra Hoover; also hybridizes with M. glauca in KR; much like M. follettii.
Horticultural information: DRN: 6 &IRR: 7, 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 8, 9, 14, 18; DFCLT.

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