|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 212); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 12-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163185]
Annual, perennial herb, ± gland-dotted
Leaves entire to serrate
Inflorescence: heads 1 or more per main stem, sometimes arrayed in spikes or panicles; bracts in 23 series (outer series (0)12 pairs, ± like leaves, 0several mm below heads, erect to reflexed; middle series 24 pairs, like leaves to papery or leathery, sometimes straw-colored to purple, erect in cup-like involucre to reflexed; inner series 0few pairs, membranous, linear-lanceolate)
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, generally < 12 mm; corolla white to purple, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed
Species in genus: ± 20 species: w North America
Etymology: (Latin: small Monarda )
Reference: [Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1106]
Complex; hybrids common, often outnumbering non-hybrids; head width and bract orientation given for unpressed specimens
Horticultural information: often DFCLT. Many subsp., subspp., or populations have exacting soil requirements.
Stem green, dark gray, or appearing glaucous, with gland-tipped bristles or not
Leaf elliptic to ovate, entire
Inflorescence: outer bracts 0; middle bracts elliptic to ovate, papery, finely short-hairy, ciliate, rose or purple (or grayish), outer of middle series in cup-like involucre, sometimes leaf-like at tips
Flower: calyx lobes sparsely to densely stiff-hairy; corolla 1020 mm, purple or red-purple
Ecology: Rocky openings, sagebrush scrub to alpine forest
Elevation: 10003500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Flowering time: JunAug
Synonyms: M. odoratissima subsp. g. (Greene) Epling
Highly variable: small-headed, matted plants of SNH, W&I, AZ, NV, Rocky Mtns have been called M. o. subsp. parvifolia (Greene) Epling; plants intermediate to M. linoides with erect, lanceolate leaves, internodes 1.52 X leaves, bracts scarious below, deep rose above, of SNE, e SNH, e MP, NV, AZ, Rocky Mtns have been called M. rubella Greene.
Hybridizes with M. beneolens, M. o. subsp. pallida, M. linoides.
Horticultural information: TRY.