Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Dieter H. Wilken, except as specifed

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic
Stems generally erect, generally 4-angled
Leaves generally simple to deeply lobed, opposite, generally gland-dotted
Inflorescence: cyme, generally clustered around stem, head-like, separated by evident internodes (terminal in Monardella ) or collectively crowded, spike-like to panicle-like (sometimes raceme or flowers 2–12); subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled
Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, sometimes 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, generally exserted, paired, pairs unequal, sometimes 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base, chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 5500 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula , lavender; Mentha , mint; Ocimum , basil; Rosmarinus , rosemary; Thymus , thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in CA Cedronella , Leonotis , Phlomis )
Reference: [Cantino & Sanders 1986 Syst Bot 11:163–185]



Perennial, glabrous to sparsely hairy, with only bisexual or only pistillate flowers
Stems prostrate to decumbent, sometimes erect, generally rooting at lower nodes
Leaf petioled; blade round to reniform, crenate to toothed
Inflorescences axillary, each subtended by leaves; flowers 2–5; bracts minute or 0
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, tube 15-veined, lobes unequal, upper >> lower; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed, ± flat, lower lip 3-lobed, central lobe > lateral lobes; stamens 4, fertile, upper pair >> lower; style lobes ± equal
Species in genus: 10 species: temp Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)


G. hederacea L.

Stem 1–5 dm; hairs spreading to reflexed
Leaf: petiole generally 1–2 cm; blade 1–2 cm, ± round to reniform
Inflorescence: bracts bristle-like
Flower: calyx 3–7 mm, fine bristly to puberulent; corolla generally 15–25 mm in bisexual flower, 8–15 mm in pistillate, violet, purple-spotted
Chromosomes: 2n=18,36
Ecology: Disturbed, often moist shaded places
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, South Coast
Distribution outside California: widespread N.America; native to Europe

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