Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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HYDROPHYLLACEAE

WATERLEAF FAMILY

Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]

PHOLISTOMA

Annual, fleshy
Stem many-branched, prostrate or reclined, brittle; angles ± glabrous, bristly, or generally with hooked prickles
Leaves simple, cauline; lower opposite; upper alternate; petioles generally winged, clasping; blade pinnately lobed, uppermost reduced, short-petioled, generally deltate, 3-lobed, with small, sharp bristles on both surfaces
Inflorescence terminal, axillary, opposite leaves, or flowers solitary; pedicels present
Flower: calyx lobes hairy, bristly-ciliate; corolla rotate, lobed to middle, lobes generally hairy; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary chamber 1, bristly-hairy, style 1, 2-lobed in distal 1/2
Fruit spheric; bristles stout
Seeds 1–8, spheric, brown, pitted or honeycombed
Species in genus: 3 species: CA, AZ, Baja CA
Etymology: (Greek: scale mouth)
Reference: [Constance 1939 Bull Torrey Bot Club 66:341–352]

Native

P. membranaceum (Benth.) Constance


Stem 5–90 cm, generally glaucous
Leaves: lower 2–13 cm, 1–8 cm wide, petiole narrowly winged, not clasping, blade oblong to ovate, base cordate or truncate, tip obtuse, lobes 5–11, oblong, obtuse, entire or 1-toothed
Inflorescence: cyme; flowers generally 2–10; pedicel 5–20 mm
Flower: calyx rotate in fruit, lobes 1–3 mm, oblong, sinus appendages 0; corolla 3–6 mm, < 1 cm wide, white, generally purple spot on each lobe; style 1–2 mm
Fruit 2–4 mm wide
Seeds 1–2
Chromosomes: n=9
Ecology: Beaches, bluffs, ravines, wooded slopes, desert washes
Elevation: 40–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Desert
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Flowering time: Mar–May

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