Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Annual, fleshy
Stem many-branched, prostrate or reclined, brittle; angles ± glabrous, bristly, or generally with hooked prickles
Leaves simple, cauline; lower opposite; upper alternate; petioles generally winged, clasping; blade pinnately lobed, uppermost reduced, short-petioled, generally deltate, 3-lobed, with small, sharp bristles on both surfaces
Inflorescence terminal, axillary, opposite leaves, or flowers solitary; pedicels present
Flower: calyx lobes hairy, bristly-ciliate; corolla rotate, lobed to middle, lobes generally hairy; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary chamber 1, bristly-hairy, style 1, 2-lobed in distal 1/2
Fruit spheric; bristles stout
Seeds 1–8, spheric, brown, pitted or honeycombed
Species in genus: 3 species: CA, AZ, Baja CA
Etymology: (Greek: scale mouth)
Reference: [Constance 1939 Bull Torrey Bot Club 66:341–352]


P. auritum (Lindl.) Lilja

Stem 1–15 cm
Leaves: lower 4–16 cm, 1–8 cm wide, petiole widely winged, clasping, blade oblong to ovate-lanceolate, base cordate, tip acuminate, lobes 5–13, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or acute, entire or 1–5-toothed
Inflorescence: flowers solitary or 2–6 in cymes; pedicels 1–3 cm
Flower: calyx lobes 3–9 mm, ± lanceolate, sinus appendages 1–4 mm; corolla 3–15 mm, 5–30 mm wide, blue to purple with darker marks in throat; style 4–8 mm
Fruit 5–10 mm wide, enclosed in calyx
Seeds 1–4
Ecology: Ocean bluffs, talus slopes, woodlands, streambanks, canyons, desert scrub
Elevation: 0–1900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, s Sierra Nevada, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, ne Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: to Arizona

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bioregional map for PHOLISTOMA%20auritum being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Pholistoma auritum
Retrieve dichotomous key for Pholistoma
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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