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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

HYDROPHYLLACEAE

WATERLEAF FAMILY

Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]

PHACELIA

Dieter H. Wilken, Richard R. Halse, and Robert W. Patterson

Annual, perennial herb, generally glandular-hairy, tap-rooted or from ± thick caudex
Leaves generally alternate, simple to 2-pinnately compound, generally ± reduced upward
Inflorescence: cyme, generally dense, coiled, generally 1-sided; pedicels generally short
Flower: corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white to purple, tube base with scales free or fused to filaments; stamens generally attached at same level, equal; ovary chamber 1 (or 2 below middle), placentas parietal, enlarging and meeting in fruit, style 2-lobed, generally hairy below lobes
Fruit oblong to spheric
Seeds 1–many, oblong to spheric, generally brownish; back generally pitted or cross-furrowed
Species in genus: ± 175 species: Am; some cultivated for ornamental
Etymology: (Greek: cluster, from the dense inflorescence)
Reference: [Halse 1981 Madroño 28:121–132; Heckard 1960 Univ Calif Publ Botany 32:1–126; Lee 1988 Syst Bot 13:16–20]
Bristly hairs may cause severe dermatitis. CA pers often hybridize, difficult to separate. Biennial and perennial herb species by Richard Halse.

Native

P. ramosissima Lehm.

Perennial 30–150 cm
Stem prostrate to ascending, many-branched, glabrous to densely hairy, glandular or not
Leaf: blade 40–200 mm, generally > petiole, oblong to widely ovate, compound; leaflets ± sessile, elliptic to oblong, coarsely toothed or lobed, lobes often toothed
Flower ± sessile; calyx lobes 4–6 mm, not generally longer in fruit, oblanceolate to ± spoon-shaped; corolla 5–8 mm, funnel- to bell-shaped, white to lavender, scales ovate; stamens 7–10 mm, exserted, glabrous; style 7–10 mm, exserted
Fruit 3–4 mm, ovoid, sharply bristly
Seeds 2–4, 2–3 mm, pitted
Chromosomes: n=11
Ecology: Many habitats
Elevation: < 3100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (except Outer North Coast Ranges), High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Southwestern California (except s Channel Islands), Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, Arizona
Varieties difficult, need study.

Native

var. ramosissima


Stem below inflorescence glandular; hairs short to long, soft, spreading
Ecology: Slopes, ridges, washes, meadows
Elevation: 100–2800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Desert Mountains (Panamint Range)
Distribution outside California: to Washington
Flowering time: May–Jul

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