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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

HYDROPHYLLACEAE

WATERLEAF FAMILY

Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]

PHACELIA

Dieter H. Wilken, Richard R. Halse, and Robert W. Patterson

Annual, perennial herb, generally glandular-hairy, tap-rooted or from ± thick caudex
Leaves generally alternate, simple to 2-pinnately compound, generally ± reduced upward
Inflorescence: cyme, generally dense, coiled, generally 1-sided; pedicels generally short
Flower: corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white to purple, tube base with scales free or fused to filaments; stamens generally attached at same level, equal; ovary chamber 1 (or 2 below middle), placentas parietal, enlarging and meeting in fruit, style 2-lobed, generally hairy below lobes
Fruit oblong to spheric
Seeds 1–many, oblong to spheric, generally brownish; back generally pitted or cross-furrowed
Species in genus: ± 175 species: Am; some cultivated for ornamental
Etymology: (Greek: cluster, from the dense inflorescence)
Reference: [Halse 1981 Madroño 28:121–132; Heckard 1960 Univ Calif Publ Botany 32:1–126; Lee 1988 Syst Bot 13:16–20]
Bristly hairs may cause severe dermatitis. CA pers often hybridize, difficult to separate. Biennial and perennial herb species by Richard Halse.

Native

P. hastata Lehm.

Perennial 5–50 cm
Stem decumbent to ± erect, ± stiff-hairy, not glandular
Leaves mostly basal; blade 15–120 mm, < to = petiole, lanceolate to widely elliptic, generally entire (or 2–4-lobed or compound with 3–5 leaflets)
Flower: pedicels 0.5–3 mm; calyx lobes 3–7 mm, 5–9 mm in fruit, linear to lanceolate; corolla 4–7 mm, urn- to bell-shaped, white to lavender, scales oblong; stamens 6–10 mm, exserted, glabrous to hairy; style 7–10 mm, exserted
Fruit 2–4 mm, ovoid, stiff-hairy
Seeds 1–3, 1.5–2.5 mm, pitted in vertical rows
Ecology: Flats, slopes, talus, scrub, coniferous forest, alpine
Elevation: 900–4000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to w Canada, South Dakota, Colorado
Ssp. intergrade.

Native

subsp. hastata


Stem ascending to ± erect, 20–50 cm; hairs ± appressed, some stiff, spreading
Flower: calyx lobes generally not glandular
Chromosomes: n=11,22
Ecology: Sandy to rocky slopes, scrub, coniferous forest
Elevation: 900–2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to w Canada, South Dakota, Colorado
Flowering time: May–Jul
Synonyms: P. oreopola Heckard subsp. simulans Heckard

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