Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.



Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Stem simple to openly branched, prostrate to erect, fleshy, brittle, angled or winged, glabrous to generally bristly
Leaves simple, cauline, opposite or alternate; petiole generally bristly-ciliate; blade pinnately toothed or lobed, generally bristly, upper generally reduced
Inflorescence: flowers solitary in axils or opposite leaves; pedicels longer in fruit, recurved
Flower: calyx bell-shaped to rotate, sinuses generally with spreading or reflexed appendages; corolla bell-shaped to rotate, white, blue, or purple, sometimes spotted or marked; stamens included; ovary chamber 1, style 1, generally lobed 1/3–1/2
Fruit generally 2–7 mm wide, spheric to ovoid, hairy, generally enclosed by calyx
Seeds ovoid, smooth, wrinkled or pitted, with a conic, colorless appendage at 1 end
Species in genus: 11 species: se US, w North America
Etymology: (Greek: woodland-loving)
Reference: [Constance 1941 Univ CA Publ Bot 19:341–398]


N. menziesii Hook. & Arn.


Leaves opposite; lower 1–5 cm; petiole = blade, blade linear-oblong to ovate, 5–13-lobed, lobes obtuse, entire or 1–3-toothed; upper leaves nearly sessile, blade entire or less lobed (sometimes only toothed)
Inflorescence: pedicels 20–60 mm in flower, < 70 mm in fruit
Flower: calyx lobes 4–8 mm, appendages 1–4 mm; corolla 5–20 mm, 6–40 mm wide, bowl-shaped to rotate, bright blue with white center to white (and generally blue-veined and black-dotted); filaments = or > corolla tube, anthers 2–3 mm; style 2–7 mm
Fruit 5–15 mm wide
Seeds 4–20, brown to black, wrinkled and tubercled
Ecology: Meadows, fields, woodlands, roadsides, grasslands, canyons
Elevation: 15–1900 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Highly variable; vars. intergrade.


var. menziesii

Leaves: lower 6–13-lobed; upper fewer, short-petioled, toothed or more narrowly lobed
Flower: corolla 5–20 mm, 10–40 mm wide, bright blue with white center or blue-veined, center generally dotted; filaments = corolla tube
Seeds 10–20
Chromosomes: n=9
Ecology: Meadows, grasslands, chaparral, woodlands, slopes, desert washes
Elevation: 15–1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert
Flowering time: Feb–Jun
Horticultural information: SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 24 &SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23; CVS.

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bioregional map for NEMOPHILA%20menziesii%20var.%20menziesii being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Nemophila menziesii var. menziesii
Retrieve dichotomous key for Nemophila
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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