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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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HYDROPHYLLACEAE

WATERLEAF FAMILY

Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]

NAMA

PURPLE MAT

John D. Bacon

Generally annual, hairy
Leaves cauline, generally alternate, simple; margin entire, wavy, crenate, or rolled under
Inflorescence: clusters (generally terminal, leafy) or flowers solitary or paired in axils, not coiled
Flower: corolla salverform to bell-shaped; stamens generally attached to corolla at different levels, generally unequal, portion fused to corolla generally narrowly winged; scales at filament base 0
Fruit generally loculicidal, ovoid to elliptic
Seeds generally many, small, reddish brown, brown, black or yellow
Species in genus: ± 55 species: sw US, tropical Am, Hawaii
Etymology: (Greek: a stream)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1933 Amer J Bot 20:415–430, 518–534]

Native

N. californicum (A. Gray) J.D. Bacon

Generally puberulent to finely strigose; hair bases generally swollen
Stem prostrate, forked, 3–10 cm
Leaf generally sessile, 5–14 mm, 1–4 mm wide, long tapered, oblanceolate, spoon-shaped, or elliptic
Inflorescence: flowers ± sessile
Flower: sepals 2–5 mm, linear-lanceolate, silky-hairy; corolla 1–3 mm, bell-shaped, white to pale pink, tube ± 0.5 mm, limb 1–2 mm diam, lobes 0.4–0.8 mm, 0.5–0.8 mm wide; stamens 0.8–1.3 mm, attached < or = 0.5 mm above corolla base, free filament abruptly expanded above attachment; styles 0.5–1 mm
Fruit 2–2.5 mm
Seeds < or = 4, 0.8–1 mm, ovoid, minutely cross-ridged, with prominent depressions
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Dry, sandy areas
Elevation: 900–2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley, e San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: w Nevada
Flowering time: Apr–Jun
Synonyms: Lemmonia c. A. Gray

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