Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]



John D. Bacon

Generally annual, hairy
Leaves cauline, generally alternate, simple; margin entire, wavy, crenate, or rolled under
Inflorescence: clusters (generally terminal, leafy) or flowers solitary or paired in axils, not coiled
Flower: corolla salverform to bell-shaped; stamens generally attached to corolla at different levels, generally unequal, portion fused to corolla generally narrowly winged; scales at filament base 0
Fruit generally loculicidal, ovoid to elliptic
Seeds generally many, small, reddish brown, brown, black or yellow
Species in genus: ± 55 species: sw US, tropical Am, Hawaii
Etymology: (Greek: a stream)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1933 Amer J Bot 20:415–430, 518–534]


N. aretioides (Hook. & Arn.) Brand

Hairs generally dense, coarse, appressed to spreading, generally swollen at base
Stem prostrate, 3–12 cm, repeatedly forked
Leaf ± sessile, generally sickle-shaped
Inflorescence: flowers sessile
Flower: sepals narrowly linear to lanceolate; corolla salverform; fused parts of filaments unwinged; style 1, 2-lobed
Fruit 2–4 mm
Seed generally compressed, irregularly elliptic-ovoid, brown to black, smooth to minutely cross-ridged, with prominent depressions
Ecology: Dry, sandy or loamy areas
Elevation: 1200–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Idaho, Nevada


var. californicum (Brand) Jeps.

Leaf 4–20 mm, narrowly linear to spoon-shaped
Flower: corolla 5–9 mm, white or pink; stamens 1–4 mm, attached 1–3 mm above corolla base; style 1–2 mm
Seed < or = 1 mm, black, smooth or minutely roughened
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Sandy-loam flats, slopes
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: w Nevada

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