Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Perennial; roots fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like, attached to rhizomes
Stem erect, fleshy
Leaves simple, pinnately lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate; petiole widened, clasping; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler below
Inflorescence generally branched, generally head-like; pedicels generally elongate, sometimes recurved in fruit
Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes linear to lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, lobes hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments hairy; ovary chamber 1, style 1, exserted, stigmas 2, base persistent
Fruit 3–5 mm wide, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx
Seeds 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown; surface net-like
Species in genus: 8 species: North America
Etymology: (Greek: water leaf)
Reference: [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Nat 27:710–731]


H. occidentale (S. Watson) A. Gray

Rhizome short
Stem 6–60 cm, short-hairy or with reflexed bristles
Leaf 5–40 cm; petiole 2–15 cm; blade oblong to oblong-ovate, deeply lobed to compound, lower pairs generally distinct, terminal widely merged, oblong, entire or deeply cut, obtuse or acute
Inflorescence generally > subtending leaves; peduncle 5–30 cm; pedicels 2–5 mm
Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm in flower, < 13 mm in fruit; corolla 6–10 mm, lobes 4–6 mm, white to lavender or white with lavender marks; anthers 1–2 mm; style 7–19 mm
Seeds generally 2
Chromosomes: n=9
Ecology: Moist, shaded slopes, woodlands, meadows, streambanks, chaparral
Elevation: 600–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Utah, Arizona
Horticultural information: SHD, DRN, DRYorIRR: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18; DFCLT.

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