Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Perennial; roots fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like, attached to rhizomes
Stem erect, fleshy
Leaves simple, pinnately lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate; petiole widened, clasping; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler below
Inflorescence generally branched, generally head-like; pedicels generally elongate, sometimes recurved in fruit
Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes linear to lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, lobes hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments hairy; ovary chamber 1, style 1, exserted, stigmas 2, base persistent
Fruit 3–5 mm wide, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx
Seeds 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown; surface net-like
Species in genus: 8 species: North America
Etymology: (Greek: water leaf)
Reference: [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Nat 27:710–731]


H. capitatum Douglas var. alpinum S. Watson


Rhizome very short
Stem very short, spreading-hairy
Leaf 4–12 cm; petiole 3–15 cm; blade ovate to oblong, deeply lobed; leaflets 5–7, lower pair generally distinct, terminal leaflets ± merged, lanceolate to obovate, obtuse or acute, short-pointed, entire
Inflorescence near ground, < subtending leaves; peduncle 1–5 cm; pedicels 4–15 mm
Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm in flower, < 8 mm in fruit; corolla 4–10 mm, lobes 2–6 mm, white to purple or white with lavender marks; anthers < 1 mm; style 7–10 mm
Seeds 1–3
Chromosomes: n=9
Ecology: Moist slopes, meadows, flats
Elevation: 900–2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Idaho, Utah
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR or DRY, SUN to SHD: 1, 2, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18; DFCLT.

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