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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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Richard R. Halse, except as specified; Robert W. Patterson, Family Editor

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally hairy, generally taprooted
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves simple to pinnately compound, basal or cauline, alternate or opposite; stipules 0
Inflorescence: cyme (generally raceme-like and coiled) or flowers solitary
Flower bisexual, generally radial; calyx lobes generally 5, generally fused at base, generally persistent, enlarging in fruit; corolla generally deciduous, rotate to cylindric, lobes generally 5, appendages in pairs on tube between filaments or 0; stamens generally 5, epipetalous, filament base sometimes appendaged, appendages scale-like; ovary generally superior, chamber 1, placentas 2, parietal, enlarged into chamber, sometimes meeting so ovary appears 2–5-chambered, styles 1–2, stigmas generally head-like
Fruit: capsule, generally loculicidal; valves generally 2
Genera in family: 20 genera, 300 species: especially w US; some cultivated (Emmenanthe, Nemophila, Phacelia )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to be included in an expanded Boraginaceae (also including Lennoaceae) [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]


Perennial, scapose; root caudex-like
Leaves simple, in basal rosette, spreading or ascending; blade tapered to petiole, generally entire, margins generally ciliate
Inflorescence: flower solitary; peduncle erect or spreading, 1–10 cm, slender
Flower: calyx lobes generally unequal, 2–9 mm, glabrous to hairy, ciliate; corolla tube generally densely hairy inside, throat generally yellow, lobes glabrous to hairy, white or bluish, generally tinged or marked with lavender or purple; stamens included, generally unequal, filament base widened; ovary hairy, chamber 1, style 1, stigmas 2, 2–5 mm
Fruit 5–11 mm, ovoid, hairy
Seeds many, ovoid, angular, reddish brown; surface honeycombed or pitted
Species in genus: 2 species: w US, n Mex
Etymology: (Greek: evening or western centaur)


H. pumilus (Griseb.) Porter

Leaves generally 2–10, 1–7 cm, < 2 cm wide, linear-oblong to oblanceolate or oblong; upper surface glabrous or hairy
Inflorescence: flowers generally 1–8
Flower: corolla 5–15 mm, 7–30 mm wide, rotate, lobes 3–11 mm, rounded
Chromosomes: n=8
Ecology: Wet meadows, slopes, flats
Elevation: 400–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Western Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, n Mojave Desert (Death Valley)
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Montana, Utah, Arizona
Flowering time: Apr–Jul
Horticultural information: DRN, DRYorIRR, SUN or part SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18; DFCLT.

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