Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

GENTIANACEAE

GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle (except as specified)

Annual, perennial herb
Stem decumbent to erect, < 2 m
Leaves simple, cauline (sometimes also basal), opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0
Flower bisexual, radial, parts in 4's or 5's, except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, persistent or deciduous, corolla generally without fringes or scales on inner surface, sinuses between lobes generally unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding
Fruit: capsule, 2-valved
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 80 genera, 900 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma , Exacum , Gentiana )
Reference: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487]

CENTAURIUM

CENTAURY

James C. Hickman

Annual, biennial, erect, glabrous
Leaves opposite, often ± sheathing
Inflorescence: cyme or panicle-like
Flower: calyx lobes generally 5, ± linear-keeled, appressed to corolla; corolla salverform or funnel-shaped, generally pink, lobes ± entire, scales 0, sinus appendages 0; stamens generally ± exserted, dehisced anthers spirally twisted; style thread-like, stigma oblong to fan-shaped
Fruit ± cylindric-fusiform
Seed generally < 0.5 mm, ± rounded, ± brown, netted
Species in genus: ± 50 species: worldwide, except s Africa
Etymology: (Latin: centaur, mythological discoverer of its medicinal properties)
Variable and difficult; worldwide study needed.

Native

C. venustum (A. Gray) B.L. Rob.

CANCHALAGUA

Annual 3–50 cm
Leaf 5–25 mm, narrowly oblong to ovate
Inflorescence dense or open; pedicels often short
Flower: corolla throat ± white, lobes (2)10–20 mm, generally rose-purple (white); undehisced anthers 3–6 mm; stigma lobes 1–1.5 mm, separately stalked, fan-shaped, spreading
Ecology: Common. Dry scrub, grassland, forest
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: e Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, e San Joaquin Valley, Southwestern California (except n Channel Islands, especially San Diego Co.), Mojave Desert
Flowering time: May–Aug
Synonyms: subsp. abramsii Munz
Highly variable; intergrades with C. calycosum, C. exaltatum, C. trichanthum. Much variation apparently environmental
Horticultural information: SUN, IRR: 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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