This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to tree
Leaves generally compound, alternate, stipuled; leaflets generally entire
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; flowers sometime 12 in axils
Flowers generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium generally flat or cup-like; sepals generally 5, fused; petals generally 5, free, or the 2 lower ± fused; stamens 1many, often 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1many, style, stigma 1
Fruit: legume, sometimes including a stalk-like base above receptacle, dehiscent, or indehiscent and breaking into 1-seeded segments, or indehiscent, 1-seeded, and achene-like
Seeds 1several, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth
Genera in family: ± 650 genera, 18,000 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture and most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis , peanut; Glycine , soybean; Phaseolus , beans; Medicago ; Trifolium ; and many orns.
[Polhill & Raven (eds) 1981 Advances in legume systematics; Allen & Allen 1981 Leguminosae]Family description and key to genera by Duane Isely.
Annual or perennial herb, unarmed
Leaves generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole; leaflets generally 3, sometimes 59, ± serrate or dentate
Inflorescence: raceme (often umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, often involucred, generally peduncled; flowers bracted or not
Flower generally spreading to erect, often becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, sometimes yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free
Fruit generally indehiscent, but often breaking, short, plump, generally included in corolla; base often stalk-like
Etymology: (Latin: 3 leaves)
Reference: [Gillett 1980 Can J Bot 58:14251558; Zohary & Heller 1984 Genus Trifolium]
Perennial, cespitose or not, glabrous
Stem decumbent or ascending
Leaves generally basal; lower stipules bristle-tipped; upper stipules wide, toothed or sharply lobed; leaflets 13 cm, narrowly elliptic to widely ovate
Inflorescence head-like, included or exserted from leaves, 23 cm wide; involucre wheel-like, segments or lobes many
Flower: calyx 711 mm, lobes tapered, tips bristled; corolla 1216 mm, pink-purple or magenta, tip white
Fruit: stalk-like base 01 mm
Ecology: Beaches to mtn meadows, ridges, generally open moist or marshy places
Elevation: < 3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Wyoming, New Mexico, Mexico
Flowering time: MayOct
The only involucred per sp. in Pacific coast states; including matted, rhizomed form (dry coastal sands); lush, long-stemmed form (lower to middle elevations); slender, often tiny form (middle to higher elevations)
Horticultural information: IRR or WET, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|