This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to tree
Leaves generally compound, alternate, stipuled; leaflets generally entire
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; flowers sometime 12 in axils
Flowers generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium generally flat or cup-like; sepals generally 5, fused; petals generally 5, free, or the 2 lower ± fused; stamens 1many, often 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1many, style, stigma 1
Fruit: legume, sometimes including a stalk-like base above receptacle, dehiscent, or indehiscent and breaking into 1-seeded segments, or indehiscent, 1-seeded, and achene-like
Seeds 1several, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth
Genera in family: ± 650 genera, 18,000 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture and most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis , peanut; Glycine , soybean; Phaseolus , beans; Medicago ; Trifolium ; and many orns.
[Polhill & Raven (eds) 1981 Advances in legume systematics; Allen & Allen 1981 Leguminosae]Family description and key to genera by Duane Isely.
Annual or perennial herb, unarmed
Leaves generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole; leaflets generally 3, sometimes 59, ± serrate or dentate
Inflorescence: raceme (often umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, often involucred, generally peduncled; flowers bracted or not
Flower generally spreading to erect, often becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, sometimes yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free
Fruit generally indehiscent, but often breaking, short, plump, generally included in corolla; base often stalk-like
Etymology: (Latin: 3 leaves)
Reference: [Gillett 1980 Can J Bot 58:14251558; Zohary & Heller 1984 Genus Trifolium]
Annual or possibly short-lived perennial herb, generally ± glabrous
Stem prostrate to erect, wiry to fleshy
Leaves cauline; lower stipules generally entire; upper stipules deeply cut; leaflets generally obovate or wedge-shaped, sometimes narrower
Inflorescence head-like, included or exserted from leaves, 0.52.5 cm wide, 1many-flowered; involucre wheel-like, generally well developed
Flower: calyx 310 mm, tube 10many-veined, all or some lobes generally > tube, bristle-tipped; corolla 3.516 mm, lavender to purple, tips generally white
Fruit: stalk-like base short or 0
Elevation: 502500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: sporadic to British Columbia, Montana, Colorado, Arizona, Baja California
Most variable of CA clovers; ± 30 names available; most conspicuous CA variants treated as phases below, with commonly used names indicated for each. Keel shape seems taxonomically insignificant (acute to beaked in phases 1 and 3); additional research needed.
Annual or possibly short-lived perennial herb, generally robust
Stem generally ascending, 15(10) dm
Inflorescence 1.52.5 cm wide, many-flowered
Flower: calyx 610 mm; corolla 1016 mm
Ecology: Permanently wet or inundated sites, including meadows, marshes, ditches
Elevation: 2002200 m
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, East of Sierra Nevada;
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Synonyms: var. melananthum (Hook. & Arn.) Greene; T. appendiculatum Lojacono var. a
Commonly confused with T. wormskioldii
Horticultural information: WET: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|