|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves generally compound, alternate, stipuled; leaflets generally entire
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; flowers sometime 12 in axils
Flowers generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium generally flat or cup-like; sepals generally 5, fused; petals generally 5, free, or the 2 lower ± fused; stamens 1many, often 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1many, style, stigma 1
Fruit: legume, sometimes including a stalk-like base above receptacle, dehiscent, or indehiscent and breaking into 1-seeded segments, or indehiscent, 1-seeded, and achene-like
Seeds 1several, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth
Genera in family: ± 650 genera, 18,000 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture and most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis , peanut; Glycine , soybean; Phaseolus , beans; Medicago ; Trifolium ; and many orns
Reference: [Polhill & Raven (eds) 1981 Advances in legume systematics; Allen & Allen 1981 Leguminosae]
Family description and key to genera by Duane Isely.
Annual to shrubs; cotyledons generally petioled, withering early
Stem generally erect
Leaves palmately compound in CA, generally cauline; stipules fused to petiole; leaflets 317, generally oblanceolate, entire
Inflorescence: raceme; flowers spiraled or whorled; bracts generally deciduous
Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lobes entire or toothed, generally appendaged between lobes; banner centrally grooved, sides reflexed, wing tips slightly fused, keel generally pointed; stamens 10, filaments fused, 5 long with short anthers, 5 short with long anthers; style brushy
Fruit dehiscent, generally oblong
Seeds 212, generally smooth
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America, w South America to e US, also tropical South America, Medit
Etymology: (Latin: wolf, from mistaken idea that plants rob soil of nutrients)
Some cultivated for fodder, green manure, edible seed, ornamental; some naturalized from CA in e North America, South America, Australia, s Africa;
some (e.g. L. arboreus, L. latifolius, L. leucophyllus ) have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) TOXIC to livestock (especially sheep)
Reference: [Barneby 1989 Intermountain Flora 3(B):237267]
Infl length does not include peduncle
Horticultural information: Many lupine taxa need seed pre-treatment (scarification, stratification, inoculation) for successful germination.
Annual 18 dm, sparsely to densely hairy; cotyledons disk-like, persistent, or leaving a circular scar
Leaf: petiole 315 cm; leaflets 511, generally 9, 1050 mm, 212 mm wide, sometimes linear, upper surface glabrous
Inflorescence 230 cm; peduncle 230 cm; bracts 3.512 mm, reflexed, persistent; pedicels 0.55 mm
Flower 818 mm; calyx upper lip 26 mm, lower lip 510 mm, appendages generally 0; petals white to dark yellow, pink to dark rose, or lavender to purple, wings generally ciliate on upper (less often lower) margins near claw, upper keel margins ciliate, lower keel margins less so or glabrous near claw
Fruit 11.5 cm, ± 10 mm wide, ovoid, hairy, erect to spreading, often on 1 side of inflorescence axis
Seeds 2, tan to brown, generally mottled, wrinkled or smooth
Ecology: Abundant. Open or disturbed areas, sometimes seeded on roadbanks
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau, w Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Baja California, S.America
Highly variable; vars. intergrade.
Inflorescence: bracts short-appressed- to long-spreading-hairy
Flower: calyx ± sparse, appressed- to spreading-hairy, appendages generally 0; petals generally white to yellow, pink- or lavender-tinged or not, rarely rose or purple, wings oblanceolate, withering, upper margins (and rarely lower margins near claw) generally ciliate, lower keel margins sometimes sparsely ciliate near claw
Fruit ± spreading, generally on 1 side of inflorescence axis
Habitats of sp.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California (except Siskiyou Co.), Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, eastern South Coast, Transverse Ranges
Synonyms: L. d. Benth., including vars. aureus (Kellogg) Munz and lacteus (Kellogg) C.P. Sm. (as used by Munz, in part)
Horticultural information: SUN: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 &IRR: 10, 11, 12, 13; CVS.