|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, vine, monoecious or dioecious
Stem generally branched, sometimes fleshy or spiny
Leaves generally simple, alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled; blade entire, toothed, or palmately lobed
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike; flowers sometimes in clusters (dense, enclosed by involucre, flower-like in Chamaesyce, Euphorbia ), terminal or axillary
Flower unisexual, ± radial; sepals generally 35, free or fused; petals generally 0; stamens 1many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers 14, styles free or fused, simple or lobed
Fruit: generally capsule
Seeds 12 per chamber; seed scar appendage sometimes present, pad- to dome-like
Genera in family: 300 genera, 7500 species: ± worldwide especially tropical; some cultivated (Aleurites , tung oil; Euphorbia subsp.; Hevea , rubber; Ricinus )
Reference: [Webster 1967 J Arnold Arbor 48:303430]
Many species ± highly TOXIC.
Shrub, generally 0.52 m, dioecious; sap clear
Stem: axis erect; branches generally many, spreading to erect; twigs generally reddish, becoming gray, generally hairy, becoming glabrous; young lateral twigs short, sometimes becoming spine-like
Leaves simple, cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled in 3's, generally clustered at short, lateral branch tips; stipules 0; petiole < 2 mm; blade leathery, entire or toothed, base obtuse to acute
Staminate inflorescence: cyme, raceme, or panicle, axillary, sometimes clustered on short, lateral twigs, minutely bracted
Pistillate inflorescence axillary; flower 1
Staminate flower: sepals 410, 0.52 mm; petals 0; stamens 510, filaments glabrous or hairy; nectary disk ± minutely lobed
Pistillate flower: sepals 413, 25 mm; petals 0; nectary disk minutely lobed; ovary (2)35-chambered, styles = chambers, free, ± flattened, generally spreading
Fruit ± spheric, generally lobed, glabrous or short hairy, generally brown
Seeds 12 per chamber, smooth, shiny; scar generally appendaged
Species in genus: 5 species: CA, AZ, Mex
Etymology: (Latin: 4 seeds, from 4-lobed ovary in T. dioicus )
Reference: [Dressler 1954 Rhodora 56:4561]
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem: twigs sparsely fine-tomentose near axils, becoming glabrous
Leaves generally opposite or 3-whorled; blade 1030 mm, narrowly oblanceolate, tip rounded to acute, margin entire or sparsely fine-toothed, sometimes inrolled
Staminate inflorescence: generally raceme; pedicel 310 mm
Staminate flower: sepals 610, ovate to lanceolate; stamens 510, filaments 2.54 mm, base soft-hairy
Pistillate flower: pedicel 615 mm; sepals 713, 35 mm, widely lanceolate to ovate; ovary finely tomentose, chambers 4(5), style 33.5 mm
Fruit ± 6 mm, 79 mm wide, sparsely fine-tomentose
Ecology: Dry slopes, chaparral
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: s South Coast (San Diego Co.), w Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|