This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, vine, monoecious or dioecious
Stem generally branched, sometimes fleshy or spiny
Leaves generally simple, alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled; blade entire, toothed, or palmately lobed
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike; flowers sometimes in clusters (dense, enclosed by involucre, flower-like in Chamaesyce, Euphorbia ), terminal or axillary
Flower unisexual, ± radial; sepals generally 35, free or fused; petals generally 0; stamens 1many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers 14, styles free or fused, simple or lobed
Fruit: generally capsule
Seeds 12 per chamber; seed scar appendage sometimes present, pad- to dome-like
Genera in family: 300 genera, 7500 species: ± worldwide especially tropical; some cultivated (Aleurites , tung oil; Euphorbia subsp.; Hevea , rubber; Ricinus )
Reference: [Webster 1967 J Arnold Arbor 48:303430]
Many species ± highly TOXIC.
Shrub, generally 0.52 m, dioecious; sap clear
Stem: axis erect; branches generally many, spreading to erect; twigs generally reddish, becoming gray, generally hairy, becoming glabrous; young lateral twigs short, sometimes becoming spine-like
Leaves simple, cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled in 3's, generally clustered at short, lateral branch tips; stipules 0; petiole < 2 mm; blade leathery, entire or toothed, base obtuse to acute
Staminate inflorescence: cyme, raceme, or panicle, axillary, sometimes clustered on short, lateral twigs, minutely bracted
Pistillate inflorescence axillary; flower 1
Staminate flower: sepals 410, 0.52 mm; petals 0; stamens 510, filaments glabrous or hairy; nectary disk ± minutely lobed
Pistillate flower: sepals 413, 25 mm; petals 0; nectary disk minutely lobed; ovary (2)35-chambered, styles = chambers, free, ± flattened, generally spreading
Fruit ± spheric, generally lobed, glabrous or short hairy, generally brown
Seeds 12 per chamber, smooth, shiny; scar generally appendaged
Species in genus: 5 species: CA, AZ, Mex
Etymology: (Latin: 4 seeds, from 4-lobed ovary in T. dioicus )
Reference: [Dressler 1954 Rhodora 56:4561]
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem: twigs sparsely fine-tomentose near axils, becoming glabrous
Leaves generally opposite or 3-whorled; blade 1030 mm, narrowly oblanceolate, tip rounded to acute, margin entire or sparsely fine-toothed, sometimes inrolled
Staminate inflorescence: generally raceme; pedicel 310 mm
Staminate flower: sepals 610, ovate to lanceolate; stamens 510, filaments 2.54 mm, base soft-hairy
Pistillate flower: pedicel 615 mm; sepals 713, 35 mm, widely lanceolate to ovate; ovary finely tomentose, chambers 4(5), style 33.5 mm
Fruit ± 6 mm, 79 mm wide, sparsely fine-tomentose
Ecology: Dry slopes, chaparral
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: s South Coast (San Diego Co.), w Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|