Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Gary D. Wallace, except as specified

Perennial, shrub, tree
Stem: bark often peeling distinctively
Leaves simple, generally cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers solitary, generally bracted; pedicels often with 2 bractlets
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals generally 4–5, generally free; petals generally 4–5, free or fused; stamens 8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscent by pores or slits; nectary generally at ovary base, disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed
Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry
Seeds generally many, sometimes winged
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium
Reference: [Wallace 1975 Wasmann J Biol 33:1–88; 1975 Bot Not 128:286–298]
Subfamilies Monotropoideae, Pyroloideae, Vaccinioideae sometimes treated as families. Nongreen plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.


Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Greek: pine foot, from habitat)


P. californica (Eastw.) H.F. Copel.


Perennial, nongreen, fleshy; roots brittle
Stem 0
Leaf scale-like
Inflorescence: raceme or flowers solitary, 1–10 cm, cream to yellowish, emerging from soil erect, not persistent after seed dispersal, bracted; bractlets 0
Flower: sepals 4(5), free, lateral 2 often folded, clasping corolla, others flat against corolla; petals 4(5), free, cylindric, cream to yellowish, outside ± glabrous, inside densely hairy; stamens generally 8, anthers erect, horseshoe-shaped, dehiscent by 1 unified slit, unawned; nectary lobes 8–10, among stamen bases; ovary superior, chamber 1 or appearing > 1 by intrusion of parietal placentas, style < 5 mm, stigma < 5 mm wide, ± funnel-shaped, yellowish, subtended by ring of hairs
Fruit: berry, < 1 cm
Seeds many, ovoid
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Mixed or coniferous forests
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, s High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: Oregon

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