Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Gary D. Wallace, except as specified

Perennial, shrub, tree
Stem: bark often peeling distinctively
Leaves simple, generally cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers solitary, generally bracted; pedicels often with 2 bractlets
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals generally 4–5, generally free; petals generally 4–5, free or fused; stamens 8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscent by pores or slits; nectary generally at ovary base, disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed
Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry
Seeds generally many, sometimes winged
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium
Reference: [Wallace 1975 Wasmann J Biol 33:1–88; 1975 Bot Not 128:286–298]
Subfamilies Monotropoideae, Pyroloideae, Vaccinioideae sometimes treated as families. Nongreen plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.



Erich Haber

Perennial, ± shrubby, evergreen, rhizomed
Leaves generally cauline, ± whorled, lanceolate to oblanceolate, leathery, generally prominently toothed, petioled
Inflorescence: ± head- or umbel-like raceme; flowers 1–10; peduncle generally papillate to glandular-hairy; bracts narrowly lanceolate to widely ovate
Flower radial, nodding, parts in 5's, free; petals spreading; stamens 10, filaments widened at base, ± hairy, anther pores on tubes; disk present; ovary superior, style in depressed center of ovary, stigma wide, peltate, lobes 5, flattened, spreading
Fruit: capsule, erect; valves opening from tip to base, margins not fibrous
Species in genus: 4–5 species: circumboreal, North America, C.Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: winter loving, from evergreen habit)


C. umbellata (L.) Bartram


Stem < 30 cm, stout
Leaves many per node, generally 3–7 cm, toothed, especially toward tip; veins not bordered
Inflorescence ± densely glandular-hairy
Flower: petals pink to red; filament base hairy on margins
Chromosomes: 2n=26
Ecology: Common. Dry conifer forest
Elevation: 300–2900 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains
Distribution outside California: to eastern N.America, C.America, Eurasia
Synonyms: var. occidentalis (Rydb.) S.F. Blake

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