|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, shrub, tree
Stem: bark often peeling distinctively
Leaves simple, generally cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers solitary, generally bracted; pedicels often with 2 bractlets
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals generally 45, generally free; petals generally 45, free or fused; stamens 810, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscent by pores or slits; nectary generally at ovary base, disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 15, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed
Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry
Seeds generally many, sometimes winged
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium
Reference: [Wallace 1975 Wasmann J Biol 33:188; 1975 Bot Not 128:286298]
Subfamilies Monotropoideae, Pyroloideae, Vaccinioideae sometimes treated as families. Nongreen plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
Shrubs, small trees
Stem prostrate to erect; fire-resistant burl sometimes present at base; bark generally reddish, smooth or gray, rough, and shredded; hairs generally alike on twig, inflorescence axis, bract
Leaves alternate, spreading to ascending, evergreen; blade surfaces generally alike, sometimes convex, differing in color (stomata restricted to lower surface) or hairiness; margin flat to rolled
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle-like, terminal; branches raceme-like; flowers bracted; bracts leaf-like, generally flat or scale-like, generally folded, keeled; immature inflorescence present late summer through winter
Flower radial; sepals generally 5, free, persistent; corolla generally 5-lobed, urn-shaped to ± spheric, white to pink; stamens generally 10, included, filament base glabrous or hairy, anther 2-pored, awns 2, recurved; ovary superior, base surrounded by nectary disk, chambers 210, ovule 1 per chamber, style 1, stigma head-like
Fruit: drupe, berry-like, generally ± spheric; pulp generally thick, mealy; stones 210, free, separable, or strongly fused
Species in genus: ± 60 species: North America (especially CA) to C.Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Reference: [Wells 1988 Madroño 35:330341]
Observation of hairs requires 10X magnification. Distribution of many species local; hybridization occurs in areas of overlap
Horticultural information: Beautiful but mostly DFCLT due to fungus and often salinity and alkali. Avoid overhead watering in hot weather. CVS are the easier garden subjects.
Shrub, tree 28+ m; burl 0 (except subsp. roofii )
Stem: twigs smooth to finely tomentose
Leaves erect; petiole 612 mm; blade 25 cm, 13.5 cm wide, generally widely ovate or oblong-ovate to obovate, base ± rounded to ± wedge-shaped, margin entire, surfaces alike, bright green, shiny, (± glaucous, dull in subsp. glaucescens ), glabrous, smooth (scabrous, veins finely bristly in subsp. wieslanderi )
Inflorescence open; branches 37; axes, bracts finely tomentose (finely glandular-bristly in subsp. wieslanderi ); bracts 24 mm, scale-like, deltate, sharp-pointed to acuminate; pedicel 38 mm, glabrous; immature axes 1545 mm, stout or slender, ± abruptly turned downward, bracts appressed
Flower: ovary glabrous or glandular
Fruit 812 mm wide, glabrous to hairy; stones free, separable
Ecology: Slopes, rocky soils, chaparral, woodland, forest
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area.
Inflorescence: immature axes 1525 mm, slender
Ecology: Chaparral, woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN, DRY: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; some forms are DFCLT; CVS.