|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, shrub, tree
Stem: bark often peeling distinctively
Leaves simple, generally cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers solitary, generally bracted; pedicels often with 2 bractlets
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals generally 45, generally free; petals generally 45, free or fused; stamens 810, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscent by pores or slits; nectary generally at ovary base, disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 15, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed
Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry
Seeds generally many, sometimes winged
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium
Reference: [Wallace 1975 Wasmann J Biol 33:188; 1975 Bot Not 128:286298]
Subfamilies Monotropoideae, Pyroloideae, Vaccinioideae sometimes treated as families. Nongreen plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
Shrubs, small trees
Stem prostrate to erect; fire-resistant burl sometimes present at base; bark generally reddish, smooth or gray, rough, and shredded; hairs generally alike on twig, inflorescence axis, bract
Leaves alternate, spreading to ascending, evergreen; blade surfaces generally alike, sometimes convex, differing in color (stomata restricted to lower surface) or hairiness; margin flat to rolled
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle-like, terminal; branches raceme-like; flowers bracted; bracts leaf-like, generally flat or scale-like, generally folded, keeled; immature inflorescence present late summer through winter
Flower radial; sepals generally 5, free, persistent; corolla generally 5-lobed, urn-shaped to ± spheric, white to pink; stamens generally 10, included, filament base glabrous or hairy, anther 2-pored, awns 2, recurved; ovary superior, base surrounded by nectary disk, chambers 210, ovule 1 per chamber, style 1, stigma head-like
Fruit: drupe, berry-like, generally ± spheric; pulp generally thick, mealy; stones 210, free, separable, or strongly fused
Species in genus: ± 60 species: North America (especially CA) to C.Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Reference: [Wells 1988 Madroño 35:330341]
Observation of hairs requires 10X magnification. Distribution of many species local; hybridization occurs in areas of overlap
Horticultural information: Beautiful but mostly DFCLT due to fungus and often salinity and alkali. Avoid overhead watering in hot weather. CVS are the easier garden subjects.
Shrub, mat- to mound-like, generally < 1 m, sometimes 23 m; burl 0
Stem: twigs finely tomentose
Leaves erect; petiole 18 mm; blade 0.83 cm, 0.41.5 cm wide, ± round, widely elliptic, or oblanceolate, base rounded to wedge-shaped, margin entire, surfaces alike, bright green, shiny, ± puberulent, becoming glabrous, smooth
Inflorescence ± spheric, dense; raceme, sometimes 1-branched; flowers dense; bracts 25 mm, scale-like, deltate, sharp-pointed; pedicel 26 mm, glabrous; immature axes 310 mm, ± slender
Flower: ovary glabrous
Fruit 38 mm wide, ± spheric, glabrous
Ecology: Coastal scrub, woodland
Elevation: < 600 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c Central Coast, w San Francisco Bay Area.
Plant generally mound-likeSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stems decumbent or ± erect, < 2 m
Leaf: petiole 36 mm; blade 12.5 cm, 11.5 cm wide, round-elliptic to elliptic
Inflorescence: axis densely tomentose
Flower: corolla 57 mm, urn-shaped
Fruit 68 mm wide
Ecology: Generally serpentine outcrops
Elevation: 200600 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Central Coast, nw San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Tamalpais, Marin Co.)
Synonyms: A. pungens var. m. (Eastw.) Munz
Horticultural information: In cultivation.