Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Elizabeth McClintock

Annual to perennial herb, rarely shrub, sometimes armed with prickles
Stem generally branched
Leaves simple, generally in basal rosettes and cauline, generally opposite, ± fused at base around stem, entire, toothed, or pinnately lobed or dissected, petioled or sessile; stipules 0
Inflorescence: head, terminal, on long peduncle, many-flowered, dense, ± spheric or cylindric, subtended by involucre; each flower generally enclosed ± at base by an involucel of 1–2 generally fused bractlets, this generally expanded above or in fruit, generally subtended by a receptacle bract
Flower bisexual, ± bilateral, especially outermost; calyx limb cup-shaped or divided into 4–5(10) linear or bristle-like segments; corolla ± funnel-shaped, lobes 4–5, < tube, generally unequal; stamens generally 4, attached to corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, style slightly exserted from corolla, stigma 2-lobed
Fruit: achene, enclosed by sometimes enlarged involucel, generally topped by persistent calyx
Genera in family: 10–11 genera, 270–350 species: Eur to e Asia, c&s Africa; several cultivated for ornamental
Reference: [Moore 1976 Flora Europaea 4:56–72]



Biennial, armed with prickles, sometimes ± throughout
Stem erect, generally < 2 m, stout, few-branched, rough-hairy
Leaf generally < 5 dm, entire or toothed
Inflorescence generally ± cylindric; involucre bracts unequal, > flowers, linear, stiff; receptacle bract ending in a spine
Flower: calyx limb cup-shaped, 4-lobed, persistent; corolla generally lavender, rarely white, tube long, lobes 4, unequal; stamens 4
Fruit 4-angled, hairy
Species in genus: ± 15 species: Eur, w Asia, Africa
Etymology: (Greek: thirst, from leaf bases that in some species hold water)
Reference: [Ferguson & Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arb 46:362–365]


D. fullonum L.


Leaves: pairs generally only shallowly fused around stem
Inflorescence 5–10 cm, ovoid-cylindric
Fruit 6–8 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=16,18
Ecology: Roadsides, pastures, old fields, sometimes moist sites
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: native to Europe
Synonyms: D. sylvestris Huds

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