Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Annual, taprooted, hairy or bristly
Stem spreading or erect, branched
Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular, 1-pinnately dissected, segments narrow
Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal or opposite a leaf, peduncled or sessile; bracts generally 0 or small; bractlets several, thread-like to linear; rays 0–few, spreading-ascending; pedicels 0 or short
Flower generally slightly bilateral; calyx lobes 0 or evident; petals obcordate, white or reddish, tips narrowed, outer petals ± > others; styles short
Fruit oblong to ovate, slightly compressed side-to-side; 1° ribs thread-like, prickly, 2° ribs densely prickly or tubercled; oil tubes per interval between 1° ribs 1; fruit axis divided in upper 1/2
Seed: face grooved
Species in genus: 10–15 species: Eurasia
Etymology: (Name used by Adanson in 1763, meaning obscure)


T. arvensis (Huds.) Link

Plant 3–10 dm, slender
Leaf: petiole 2–8 cm; blade 5–12 cm, ± ovate, 2–3-pinnate, leaflets 5–60 mm, lanceolate to ovate, regularly pinnately cut; upper cauline leaves generally 1-pinnate
Inflorescence: peduncle 2–12 cm; bracts 0–2; bractlets several, 2–4 mm, linear; rays 2–10, ± equal; pedicels 1–4 mm
Fruit 3–5 mm, oblong-ovate; prickles spreading, generally = fruit in width
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Disturbed places
Elevation: 40–1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (especially Northwestern California, Central Western California, n Sierra Nevada Foothills)
Distribution outside California: native to c&s Europe
Rapidly spreading; waifs in CA seem to be subsp. purpurea (Ten.) Hayek, including plants sometimes referred to T. japonica (Houtt.) DC.

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bioregional map for TORILIS%20arvensis being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Torilis arvensis
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