Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Perennial, glabrous; roots clustered, fibrous or ± tuberous
Stem erect or ascending, branched
Leaf: blade oblong to ovate, 1-pinnate, sometimes 2-pinnate when submerged, leaflets distinct, serrate, irregularly cut, or pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: umbels compound, generally opposite a leaf; bracts, bractlets leaf-like, often reflexed, conspicuous; rays, pedicels many, spreading-ascending
Flower sometimes ± bilateral; calyx lobes 0 or minute; petals wide, white, narrowed at tips, outer slightly > others
Fruit ovate to round, slightly compressed side-to-side; ribs prominent, subequal, corky; oil tubes per rib-interval 1–3; fruit axis entire or divided to base, adhering to fruit halves or not
Seed: face flat
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Species in genus: ± 10 species: North America., Eurasia, Africa
Etymology: (Greek: for some aquatic member of family)


S. suave Walter

Plant 6–12 dm, stout
Leaf: petiole 1–8 dm, segmented; blade 6–25 cm, 7–18 cm wide, leaflets 1–4 cm, linear or lanceolate, serrate or irregularly cut
Inflorescence: peduncle 4–10 cm; bracts 6–10, 3–15 mm, linear or lanceolate, acute, entire or irregularly cut, reflexed; bractlets 4–8, 1–3 mm, linear-lanceolate; rays 10–20, 1.5–3 cm, slender, subequal; pedicels 3–5 mm
Fruit 2–3 mm wide
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Wet soil of swamps, marshes, streambanks
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: sw Sacramento Valley (Suisun Marshes), Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, e N.America, e Asia
Flowering time: Jul–Aug
Horticultural information: TRY.

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