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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lincoln Constance

Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.


Biennial, perennial herb, rhizomed or tap- or tuberous-rooted, glabrous or minutely scabrous
Stem generally spreading or erect
Leaf: blade oblong-ovate to obovate, entire to ternately, palmately, subpinnately, or pinnately lobed, dissected, or compound
Inflorescence: heads simple, in cymes or racemes, dense, of bisexual and staminate (or only staminate) flowers; bracts entire or lobed, < to > heads; bisexual flowers pedicelled or not, staminate generally pedicelled
Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent, sometimes fused; petals wide, yellow, red-purple, or greenish white, tips narrowed, often lobed; styles long or short; projection atop ovary 0
Fruit oblong-ovate to round, slightly compressed side-to-side; fruit-halves subcylindric, covered with prickles, scales, or tubercles; ribs 0; oil tubes evident or obscure, regularly or irregularly arranged; fruit central axis not an obvious structure
Seed: face flat or grooved
Species in genus: ± 40 species: temp, ± worldwide
Etymology: (Latin: to heal)
Reference: [Bell 1954 Univ Calif Publ Bot 27:133–230]


S. tuberosa Torr.

Plant 5–80 cm, slender; tuber 5–15 mm wide, spheric
Leaf compound, ternate then 1–2-pinnate, green, glaucous, or purplish; blade 2–13 cm, triangular to ovate, leaflets entire to deeply pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: peduncles 0.5–8.5 cm; bracts 6–10, 1–3 mm, oblong to lanceolate, fused, < heads; pedicel of bisexual flower 0, of staminate 2–7 mm, often >> fruit
Flowers: bisexual 3–5; staminate 4–10; calyx lobes 0.3–0.5 mm, ovate, acute, fused below middle; corolla yellow; styles ± 3 X calyx lobes
Fruit 1.5–2 mm, ovate to nearly round, with rounded, unarmed tubercles
Seed: face flat
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Open gravelly meadows, chaparral, woodland, pine forest
Elevation: 150–2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Horticultural information: DFCLT.

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bioregional map for SANICULA%20tuberosa being generated
N.B. The distribution depicted here differs from that given in The Jepson Manual (1993)

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Sanicula tuberosa
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