|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, biennial, perennial herb (rarely shrub, tree), often from taproot
Stem often ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow
Leaves basal and generally some cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, sometimes compound
Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present (in involucres) or not; bractlets generally present (in involucels)
Flowers many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small, atop ovary; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform on top subtending 2 free styles
Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves that separate from each other but generally remain attached for some time to a central axis; ribs on each half 5, 2 marginal and 3 on back; oil tubes 1several per interval between ribs
Genera in family: 300 genera, 3,000 species: ± worldwide, especially temp; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); some highly toxic (e.g., Conium). Underground structures here called roots, but true nature remains problematic. Mature fruit generally critical in identification; shapes generally given in outline, followed by shape in X -section of 2 fruit halves together.
Biennial, perennial herb, rhizomed or tap- or tuberous-rooted, glabrous or minutely scabrous
Stem generally spreading or erect
Leaf: blade oblong-ovate to obovate, entire to ternately, palmately, subpinnately, or pinnately lobed, dissected, or compound
Inflorescence: heads simple, in cymes or racemes, dense, of bisexual and staminate (or only staminate) flowers; bracts entire or lobed, < to > heads; bisexual flowers pedicelled or not, staminate generally pedicelled
Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent, sometimes fused; petals wide, yellow, red-purple, or greenish white, tips narrowed, often lobed; styles long or short; projection atop ovary 0
Fruit oblong-ovate to round, slightly compressed side-to-side; fruit-halves subcylindric, covered with prickles, scales, or tubercles; ribs 0; oil tubes evident or obscure, regularly or irregularly arranged; fruit central axis not an obvious structure
Seed: face flat or grooved
Species in genus: ± 40 species: temp, ± worldwide
Etymology: (Latin: to heal)
Reference: [Bell 1954 Univ Calif Publ Bot 27:133230]
Plant 1025 cm, stout; tuber 23.5 cm wide, ± spheric, deep-seatedSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaf compound, ternate then 12-pinnate, purplish or glaucous; blade 39 cm, triangular, leaflets stalked, margins finely serrate
Inflorescence: peduncle 0.54 cm; bracts 35, widely lanceolate, entire or 3-lobed, fused at base, < heads; pedicel of bisexual flower 0, of staminate 38 mm, >> fruit
Flowers: bisexual 35; staminate 612; calyx lobes ± 0.5 mm, triangular-ovate, acute; corolla pale salmon to straw-colored; styles ± 3 X calyx lobes
Fruit 2.53 mm wide, ovate to nearly round, tubercles ± rounded, most nipple-like or with a bristle
Seed: face ± plane
Ecology: Rocky ridges or talus, chaparral, woodland
Elevation: 9001100 m.
Bioregional distribution: e&s San Francisco Bay Area (Mount Diablo, Contra Costa Co.; Mount Hamilton, Santa Clara Co.)
Horticultural information: In cultivation.